Richard A. Pfuetzner

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The potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans is an integral membrane protein with sequence similarity to all known K+ channels, particularly in the pore region. X-ray analysis with data to 3.2 angstroms reveals that four identical subunits create an inverted teepee, or cone, cradling the selectivity filter of the pore in its outer end. The narrow(More)
The single-stranded-DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) are essential for DNA function in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, mitochondria, phages and viruses. The structures of four SSBs have been solved, but the molecular details of the interaction of SSBs with DNA remain speculative. We report here the crystal structure at 2.4 A resolution of the(More)
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a macromolecular 'injectisome' that allows bacterial pathogens to transport virulence proteins into the eukaryotic host cell. This macromolecular complex is composed of connected ring-like structures that span both bacterial membranes. The crystal structures of the periplasmic domain of the outer membrane secretin(More)
Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) are multi-protein macromolecular 'machines' that have a central function in the virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens by directly mediating the secretion and translocation of bacterial proteins (termed effectors) into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Most of the 20 unique structural components constituting this(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) secretes several Esps (E. coli-secreted proteins) that are required for full virulence. Insertion of the bacterial protein Tir into the host epithelial cell membrane is facilitated by a type III secretion apparatus, and at least EspA and EspB are required for Tir translocation. An EPEC outer membrane protein,(More)
Bacterial virulence mechanisms are attractive targets for antibiotic development because they are required for the pathogenesis of numerous global infectious disease agents. The bacterial secretion systems used to assemble the surface structures that promote adherence and deliver protein virulence effectors to host cells could comprise one such therapeutic(More)
Autophagy, an important catabolic pathway implicated in a broad spectrum of human diseases, begins by forming double membrane autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic cargo and ends by fusing autophagosomes with lysosomes for degradation. Membrane fusion activity is required for early biogenesis of autophagosomes and late degradation in lysosomes. However, the(More)
Human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR) belong to the family of attaching and effacing (A/E) bacterial pathogens. They possess the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type III secretion system. These pathogens secrete a number(More)
LexA repressor undergoes a self-cleavage reaction. In vivo, this reaction requires an activated form of RecA, but it occurs spontaneously in vitro at high pH. Accordingly, LexA must both allow self-cleavage and yet prevent this reaction in the absence of a stimulus. We have solved the crystal structures of several mutant forms of LexA. Strikingly, two(More)
Intimin and its translocated intimin receptor (Tir) are bacterial proteins that mediate adhesion between mammalian cells and attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causes significant paediatric morbidity and mortality world-wide. A related A/E pathogen, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC; O157:H7) is one of the most(More)