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The potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans is an integral membrane protein with sequence similarity to all known K+ channels, particularly in the pore region. X-ray analysis with data to 3.2 angstroms reveals that four identical subunits create an inverted teepee, or cone, cradling the selectivity filter of the pore in its outer end. The narrow(More)
The single-stranded-DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) are essential for DNA function in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, mitochondria, phages and viruses. The structures of four SSBs have been solved, but the molecular details of the interaction of SSBs with DNA remain speculative. We report here the crystal structure at 2.4 A resolution of the(More)
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a macromolecular 'injectisome' that allows bacterial pathogens to transport virulence proteins into the eukaryotic host cell. This macromolecular complex is composed of connected ring-like structures that span both bacterial membranes. The crystal structures of the periplasmic domain of the outer membrane secretin(More)
Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) are multi-protein macromolecular 'machines' that have a central function in the virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens by directly mediating the secretion and translocation of bacterial proteins (termed effectors) into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Most of the 20 unique structural components constituting this(More)
Autophagy, an important catabolic pathway implicated in a broad spectrum of human diseases, begins by forming double membrane autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic cargo and ends by fusing autophagosomes with lysosomes for degradation. Membrane fusion activity is required for early biogenesis of autophagosomes and late degradation in lysosomes. However, the(More)
Synaptotagmin-1 and neuronal SNARE proteins have central roles in evoked synchronous neurotransmitter release; however, it is unknown how they cooperate to trigger synaptic vesicle fusion. Here we report atomic-resolution crystal structures of Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-bound complexes between synaptotagmin-1 and the neuronal SNARE complex, one of which was(More)
Human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR) belong to the family of attaching and effacing (A/E) bacterial pathogens. They possess the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type III secretion system. These pathogens secrete a number(More)
The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein binds to and activates DNA replication from oriP, the latent origin of DNA replication in Epstein-Barr virus. The crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of EBNA1 bound to an 18 bp binding site was solved at 2.4 A resolution. EBNA1 comprises two domains, a flanking and a core domain. The flanking(More)
The crystal structure of the DNA-binding and dimerization domains of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), which binds to and activates DNA replication from the latent origin of replication in Epstein-Barr virus, was solved at 2.5 A resolution. EBNA1 appears to bind DNA via two independent regions termed the core and the flanking DNA-binding(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) secretes several Esps (E. coli-secreted proteins) that are required for full virulence. Insertion of the bacterial protein Tir into the host epithelial cell membrane is facilitated by a type III secretion apparatus, and at least EspA and EspB are required for Tir translocation. An EPEC outer membrane protein,(More)