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The potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans is an integral membrane protein with sequence similarity to all known K+ channels, particularly in the pore region. X-ray analysis with data to 3.2 angstroms reveals that four identical subunits create an inverted teepee, or cone, cradling the selectivity filter of the pore in its outer end. The narrow(More)
The single-stranded-DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) are essential for DNA function in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, mitochondria, phages and viruses. The structures of four SSBs have been solved, but the molecular details of the interaction of SSBs with DNA remain speculative. We report here the crystal structure at 2.4 A resolution of the(More)
Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) are multi-protein macromolecular 'machines' that have a central function in the virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens by directly mediating the secretion and translocation of bacterial proteins (termed effectors) into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Most of the 20 unique structural components constituting this(More)
The crystal structure of the DNA-binding and dimerization domains of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), which binds to and activates DNA replication from the latent origin of replication in Epstein-Barr virus, was solved at 2.5 A resolution. EBNA1 appears to bind DNA via two independent regions termed the core and the flanking DNA-binding(More)
The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein binds to and activates DNA replication from oriP, the latent origin of DNA replication in Epstein-Barr virus. The crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of EBNA1 bound to an 18 bp binding site was solved at 2.4 A resolution. EBNA1 comprises two domains, a flanking and a core domain. The flanking(More)
Synaptotagmin-1 and neuronal SNARE proteins have central roles in evoked synchronous neurotransmitter release; however, it is unknown how they cooperate to trigger synaptic vesicle fusion. Here we report atomic-resolution crystal structures of Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-bound complexes between synaptotagmin-1 and the neuronal SNARE complex, one of which was(More)
Autophagy, an important catabolic pathway implicated in a broad spectrum of human diseases, begins by forming double membrane autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic cargo and ends by fusing autophagosomes with lysosomes for degradation. Membrane fusion activity is required for early biogenesis of autophagosomes and late degradation in lysosomes. However, the(More)
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an interspecies protein transport machine that plays a major role in interactions of Gram-negative bacteria with animals and plants by delivering bacterial effector proteins into host cells. T3SSs span both membranes of Gram-negative bacteria by forming a structure of connected oligomeric rings termed the needle(More)
Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins are essential for membrane trafficking, but their molecular mechanism remains unclear. Using a single vesicle-vesicle content-mixing assay with reconstituted neuronal SNAREs, synaptotagmin-1, and complexin-1, we show that the neuronal SM protein Munc18a/nSec1 has no effect on the intrinsic kinetics of both spontaneous fusion and(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) triggers a dramatic rearrangement of the host epithelial cell actin cytoskeleton to form an attaching and effacing lesion, or pedestal. The pathogen remains attached extracellularly to the host cell through the pedestal for the duration of the infection. At the tip of the pedestal is a bacterial protein, Tir, which(More)