Richard A. O'Connor

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B lymphocytes have critical roles as positive and negative regulators of immunity. Their inhibitory function has been associated primarily with interleukin 10 (IL-10) because B-cell-derived IL-10 can protect against autoimmune disease and increase susceptibility to pathogens. Here we identify IL-35-producing B cells as key players in the negative regulation(More)
The role of T regulatory (Treg) cells expressing the forkhead box transcription factor 3 (foxp3) in the control of autoaggressive immune responses is the subject of intense investigation. Here we explore the contribution of these cells to the regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Starting from a historical perspective, we review(More)
B cells have paradoxical roles in autoimmunity, exerting both pathogenic and protective effects. Pathogenesis may be antibody independent, as B cell depletion therapy (BCDT) leads to amelioration of disease irrespective of autoantibody ablation. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. We demonstrate that BCDT alleviates central(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) depends on the initial activation of CD4+ T cells responsive to myelin autoantigens. The key antigen presenting cell (APC) population that drives the activation of naïve T cells most efficiently is the dendritic cell (DC). As such, we should be able to trigger EAE by transfer of DC that can present the(More)
The use of modern hardware-description languages in the chip design process has allowed designs to be modeled at higher abstraction levels. More powerful modeling styles, such as register-transfer and behavioral level specifications, have spurred the development of high-level synthesis techniques in both industry and academia. However, despite the many(More)
T cells that produce both IL-17 and IFN-γ, and co-express ROR-γt and T-bet, are often found at sites of autoimmune inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this co-expression of T-bet with ROR-γt is a prerequisite for immunopathology. We show here that T-bet is not required for the development of Th17-driven experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis(More)
Accumulation of T regulatory (Treg) cells within the central nervous system (CNS) during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is essential for the resolution of disease. CNS Treg cells have been shown to uniformly express the Th1-associated molecules, T-bet and CXCR3. Here, we report that the expression of T-bet is not required for the function(More)
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects organs from ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) through unknown mechanisms. Effector T cell populations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IRI, and T regulatory cells (Treg) have become a putative therapeutic target, with suggested involvement in IPC. We explored the role of Treg in hepatic IRI and IPC in(More)
Systemic inflammation, which results from the massive release of proinflammatory molecules into the circulatory system, is a major risk factor for severe illness, but the precise mechanisms underlying its control are not fully understood. We observed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), through its receptor EP4, is down-regulated in human systemic inflammatory(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) play a crucial role in regulating T cell activation. Due to their capacity to shape the immune response, tolerogenic DC have been used to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined whether 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3-conditioned bone marrow-derived DC (VitD-BMDC) were able to limit the development of autoimmune pathology in(More)