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BACKGROUND Cocaine treatment upregulates brain mu-opioid receptors (mOR) in animals. Human data regarding this phenomenon are limited. We previously used positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]-carfentanil to show increased mOR binding in brain regions of 10 cocaine-dependent men after 1 and 28 days of abstinence. METHODS Regional brain mOR binding(More)
The rate hypothesis of psychoactive drug action holds that the faster a drug reaches the brain and starts to act, the greater its reinforcing effects and abuse liability. A previous human study using a single cocaine dose confirmed the rate hypothesis for subjective responses, but found no rate effect on cardiovascular responses. We evaluated the rate(More)
  • Living Standards, William J Baumel, Sue Ann, Batey Blackman, Ed, N bullet +8 others
  • 2007
Since economic history has migrated to the domain of economics, many historians do not know what economic historians do or why. I intend to address those questions drawing upon the most recent research. We begin with the two topics that have dominated the field for the last 30 years-growth and welfare. The first reading offers an optimist's summation of the(More)
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