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To better understand the contextual interference effect, in two experiments we investigated a form of practice schedule that provided novices with systematic increases in contextual interference. This new type of practice schedule was compared with traditional blocked and random scheduling for two types of sports skills. In Experiment 1, we tested the(More)
APPLICATION Have you noticed when you are first learning a skill, such as the serve in tennis, the hook in bowling, or a jump in ballet, that you must think about some very specific aspects of the skill, which differ from what you think about after you have become rather proficient at performing that skill? When you are first learning the tennis serve, you(More)
Calorimeters are used to measure directly the loss in electrical machines operating under various load conditions. This paper examines experimental errors resulting from calorimeter design and from operating procedures. The techniques of minimising these errors used by previous researchers are reviewed. An improved technique for obtaining high accuracy in(More)
The authors investigated whether the knowledge of results (KR) schedule influences the extent to which intrinsic feedback is noticed and used. Fifty-six participants received KR that was either delayed over 2 trials (Delay-2) or provided directly after each trial (Delay-0) during 160 trials of an unfamiliar aiming task. No-KR retention tests were given(More)
For this study, we investigated the effects of self-controlled practice on learning multiple motor skills. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to self-control or yoked conditions. Participants learned a three-keystroke pattern with three different relative time structures. Those in the self-control group chose one of three relative time structures(More)
Currently, a popular model for the central representation of motor skills is embodied in Schmidt's schema theory of discrete motor skill learning (Schmidt, 1975). Two experiments are reported here that contrast predictions from a schema abstraction model that is the basis for schema theory with those from an exemplar-based model of motor skill memory(More)
Cognitive and motor performance are critical in many circumstances and are impaired by sleep deprivation. We administered placebo, tyrosine 150 mg/kg, caffeine 300 mg/70 kg, phentermine 37.5 mg and D-amphetamine 20 mg at 15.30 h following overnight sleep deprivation and compare their effects on cognitive and motor performance in healthy young men. Tests of(More)
Since the publication of Schmidt's (1975) schema theory of motor learning, numerous studies have assessed the variability of practice hypothesis. Of these, only research using children as subjects has provided consistent results. Findings from adult studies have been equivocal. Two experiments were conducted to assess the possibility that the schedule of(More)
Research investigating the preparation and control of rapid, multisegmented responses typically has assumed complete programming of the response occurring prior to movement initiation and has made use of a simple reaction time (RT) paradigm. A notable exception is Rosenbaum's work which proposed the Hierarchical Editor (HED) model that is specifically(More)