Richard A . Heyman

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We explored the effects of bile acids on triglyceride (TG) homeostasis using a combination of molecular, cellular, and animal models. Cholic acid (CA) prevents hepatic TG accumulation, VLDL secretion, and elevated serum TG in mouse models of hypertriglyceridemia. At the molecular level, CA decreases hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and its lipogenic target(More)
Peroxisomes are cytoplasmic organelles which are important in mammals in modulation of lipid homeostasis, including the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids and conversion of cholesterol to bile salts (reviewed in refs 1 and 2). Amphipathic carboxylates such as clofibric acid have been used in man as hypolipidaemic agents and in rodents they stimulate the(More)
Increased activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) may explain the hypotriglyceridemic effects of fibrates, thiazolidinediones and fatty acids, which are known activators (and/or ligands) of the various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Treatment with compounds which activate preferentially PPARalpha, such as fenofibrate, induced LPL(More)
All-trans retinoic acid (RA) has previously been shown to modulate the transcriptional properties of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). The inability of all-trans RA to bind to RXR suggests that it may be metabolized to a more active high affinity ligand. We report here an experimental approach that has identified 9-cis RA as an(More)
Several nuclear hormone receptors involved in lipid metabolism form obligate heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and are activated by RXR agonists such as rexinoids. Animals treated with rexinoids exhibited marked changes in cholesterol balance, including inhibition of cholesterol absorption and repressed bile acid synthesis. Studies with(More)
An understanding of the differences and similarities of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) systems requires knowledge of the diversity of their family members, their patterns of expression, and their pharmacological response to ligands. In this paper we report the isolation of a family of mouse RXR genes encoding three distinct(More)
Nuclear receptors regulate gene expression by direct activation of target genes and inhibition of AP-1. Here we report that, unexpectedly, activation by nuclear receptors requires the actions of CREB-binding protein (CBP) and that inhibition of AP-1 activity is the apparent result of competition for limiting amounts of CBP/p300 in cells. Utilizing distinct(More)
We have identified a new retinoid response pathway through which 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA) activates transcription in the presence of LXR alpha, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. LXR alpha shows a specific pattern of expression in visceral organs, thereby restricting the response to certain tissues. Retinoid trans-activation occurs selectively(More)
Extracts of the resin of the guggul tree (Commiphora mukul) lower LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels in humans. The plant sterol guggulsterone [4,17(20)-pregnadiene-3,16-dione] is the active agent in this extract. We show that guggulsterone is a highly efficacious antagonist of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear hormone receptor that is(More)
Retinoic acid receptors (RAR), thyroid hormone receptors (TR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) and the orphan receptor, LXR, bind preferentially to DNA as heterodimers with a common partner, retinoid X receptor (RXR), to regulate transcription. We investigated whether RXR-selective agonists replicate the activity of ligands for several(More)