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Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus of fish, infectious bursal disease virus of chickens, Tellina virus and oyster virus of bivalve molluscs, and drosophila X virus of Drosophila melanogaster are naked icosahedral viruses with an electron microscopic diameter of 58 to 60 nm. The genome of each of these viruses consists of two segments of double-stranded(More)
Sugar maple, Acer saccharum, decline disease is incited by multiple disturbance factors when imbalanced calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) act as predisposing stressors. Our objective in this study was to determine whether factors affecting sugar maple health also affect growth as estimated by basal area increment (BAI). We used 76 northern(More)
Quasi-elastic light scattering and cinematographical techniques were used to investigate the motility of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (wild type). It was found that quantitative information on the trajectory of motion was required for a meaningful interpretation of the autocorrelation functions. Two models for describing the oscillatory motion of the cell were(More)
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is altering biogeochemical cycling in forests and interconnected lakes of the northeastern US, and may shift nutrient limitation from N toward other essential elements, such as phosphorus (P). Whether this shift is occurring relative to N deposition gradients across the northeastern US has not been investigated. We used(More)
The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic insect pest currently threatening ash species in the Great Lakes region. Because of the potential impact on forests in this area, multiple government agencies are currently focusing their efforts on developing new technologies to detect, monitor and control this insect pest. Previous work has shown that hyperspectral(More)
The molecular weight of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) has been determined by analytical ultracentrifugation and dynamic light scattering. The sedimentation coefficient of the virus was found to be 435S. The average value for molecular weight is (55 +/- 7) x 106. The virus genome consists of two segments of double-stranded RNA (molecular(More)
Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated for its effectiveness at predicting pre-visual decline in eastern hemlock trees. An ASD FieldSpec Pro FR field spectroradiometer measuring 2100 contiguous 1-nm-wide channels from 350 nm to 2500 nm was used to collect spectra from fresh hemlock foliage. Full spectrum partial least squares (PLS) regression(More)
Preliminary data from 45 hemlock woolly adelgid monitoring plots across the Northeast indicate that a suite of macronutrients is strongly associated with adelgid infestation and hemlock decline. Although it is unclear whether specific chemical characteristics cause (palatability effect) or result (defensive strategy) from infestation, N, Ca, K, and Mn were(More)
Soil erosion, loss of productivity potential, biodiversity loss, water shortage, and soil and water pollution are ongoing processes that decrease or degrade provisioning (e.g., biomass, freshwater) and regulating (e.g., carbon sequestration, soil quality) ecosystem services. Therefore, developing environmental technologies that maximize these services is(More)
The hemlock woolly adelgid is a serious pest of Eastern and Carolina hemlock in the eastern United States. Successfully managing the hemlock resource in the region depends on careful monitoring of the spread of this invasive pest and the targeted application of management options such as biological control, chemical, or silvicultural treatments. To inform(More)