Richard A Graveling

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BACKGROUND Previous studies reported that, in non-degenerate discs, the nucleus pulposus migrates posteriorly during flexion and anteriorly during extension within the intervertebral disc. However, in these studies the differences between anterior and posterior distances have been regarded as an indicator of nucleus pulposus migration. This study(More)
The handling of mining supplies still involves manual lifting and carrying, some of which is, of necessity, carried out in restricted headroom conditions. Laboratory studies previously reported in the literature have shown that a reduction in ceiling height led to a progressive increase in truncal stress as measured by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP).(More)
A study was made of physiological responses of autistic children to variations in environmental load in order to examine the under- versus over-arousal dichotomy. More specifically, measures of urinary mucoprotein excretion and mean heart rate and three measures of heart rate variability were compared with matched controls in conditions of normal, high, and(More)
Opportunities to evaluate spinal loading in vivo are limited and a large majority of studies on the mechanical functions of the spine have been in vitro cadaveric studies and/or models based on many assumptions that are difficult to validate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obtaining(More)
This report presents an overview of evidence on RPE and user behaviour drawn from a number of sources, including published material; IOM reports; and the expertise and experience of IOM staff. It provides an evidence-base for factors influencing the use (or non-use) of RPE in the workplace and on how well RPE programmes are currently implemented. Although(More)
The effects on the detection of objects moving in the peripheral field of adding ambient illumination (giving an illuminance of 5 lux) to that provided by a miner's cap lamp were examined in simulated underground conditions. The results indicated that an object moving into the visual field was detected at a significantly wider angle with the 5 lux ambient(More)
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