Richard A. Goldstein

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Retroviral and other reverse transcriptase (RT)-containing sequences may be subject to unique evolutionary pressures, and models of molecular sequence evolution developed using other kinds of sequences may not be optimal. Here we develop and present a new substitution matrix for maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis which has been optimized on a(More)
The process of amino acid replacement in proteins is context-dependent, with substitution rates influenced by local structure, functional role, and amino acids at other locations. Predicting how these differences affect replacement processes is difficult. To make such inference easier, it is often assumed that the acceptabilities of different amino acids at(More)
The natural reservoir of Influenza A is waterfowl. Normally, waterfowl viruses are not adapted to infect and spread in the human population. Sometimes, through reassortment or through whole host shift events, genetic material from waterfowl viruses is introduced into the human population causing worldwide pandemics. Identifying which mutations allow viruses(More)
Protein folding codes embodying local interactions including surface and secondary structure propensities and residue-residue contacts are optimized for a set of training proteins by using spin-glass theory. A screening method based on these codes correctly matches the structure of a set of test proteins with proteins of similar topology with 100% accuracy,(More)
Most globular proteins are marginally stable regardless of size or activity. The most common interpretation is that proteins must be marginally stable in order to function, and so marginal stability represents the results of positive selection. We consider the issue of marginal stability directly using model proteins and the dynamical aspects of protein(More)
We introduce a novel Bayesian probabilistic method for predicting the solvent accessibilities of amino acid residues in globular proteins. Using single sequence data, this method achieves prediction accuracies higher than previously published methods. Substantially improved predictions-comparable to the highest accuracies reported in the literature to(More)
Protein-folding codes embodied in sequence-dependent energy functions can be optimized using spin-glass theory. Optimal folding codes for associative-memory Hamiltonians based on aligned sequences are deduced. A screening method based on these codes correctly recognizes protein structures in the "twilight zone" of sequence identity in the overwhelming(More)
Using a maximum-likelihood formalism, we have developed a method with which to reconstruct the sequences of ancestral proteins. Our approach allows the calculation of not only the most probable ancestral sequence but also of the probability of any amino acid at any given node in the evolutionary tree. Because we consider evolution on the amino acid level,(More)
The phylogenetic inference of ancestral protein sequences is a powerful technique for the study of molecular evolution, but any conclusions drawn from such studies are only as good as the accuracy of the reconstruction method. Every inference method leads to errors in the ancestral protein sequence, resulting in potentially misleading estimates of the(More)
When we seek to explain the characteristics of living systems in their evolutionary context, we are often interested in understanding how and why certain properties arose through evolution, and how these properties then affected the continuing evolutionary process. This endeavor has been assisted by the use of simple computational models that have(More)