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Plants produce a wide array of natural products, many of which are likely to be useful bioactive structures. Unfortunately, these complex natural products usually occur at very low abundance and with restricted tissue distribution, thereby hindering their evaluation. Here, we report a novel approach for enhancing the accumulation of natural products based(More)
Microbial elicitors or attempted infection with an avirulent pathogen strain causes the rapid production of reactive oxygen intermediates. We report here that H2O2 from this oxidative burst not only drives the cross-linking of cell wall structural proteins, but also functions as a local trigger of programmed death in challenged cells and as a diffusible(More)
Activation tagging using T-DNA vectors that contain multimerized transcriptional enhancers from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S gene has been applied to Arabidopsis plants. New activation-tagging vectors that confer resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin or the herbicide glufosinate have been used to generate several tens of thousands of transformed(More)
Recognition of an avirulent pathogen stimulates an oxidative burst generating O2- and H2O2, and these reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) cue the induction of defense genes and cell death in the development of a restricted lesion. This localized hypersensitive response (HR) is accompanied by the development of systemic acquired resistance to virulent(More)
Recognition of an avirulent pathogen triggers the rapid production of the reactive oxygen intermediates superoxide (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This oxidative burst drives crosslinking of the cell wall, induces several plant genes involved in cellular protection and defence, and is necessary for the initiation of host cell death in the hypersensitive(More)
Chalcone synthase (CHS) is pivotal for the biosynthesis of flavonoid antimicrobial phytoalexins and anthocyanin pigments in plants. It produces chalcone by condensing one p-coumaroyl- and three malonyl-coenzyme A thioesters into a polyketide reaction intermediate that cyclizes. The crystal structures of CHS alone and complexed with substrate and product(More)
The phenylpropanoid-derived natural product salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in disease resistance. However, SA administered in the absence of a pathogen is a paradoxically weak inductive signal, often requiring concentrations of 0.5 to 5 mM to induce acquired resistance or related defense mechanisms or to precondition signal systems. In contrast,(More)
Localized attack by a necrotizing pathogen induces systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to subsequent attack by a broad range of normally virulent pathogens. Salicylic acid accumulation is required for activation of local defenses, such as pathogenesis-related protein accumulation, at the initial site of attack, and for subsequent expression of SAR upon(More)
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) genomic sequences were isolated from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genomic libraries using elicitor-induced bean PAL cDNA sequences as a probe. Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA fragments revealed three divergent classes of PAL genes in the bean genome. Polymorphic forms were observed within each class.(More)
Transgenic alfalfa plants were generated harboring caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCOMT) cDNA sequences under control of the bean phenylalanine ammonia-lyase PAL2 promoter. Strong downregulation of COMT resulted in decreased lignin content, a reduction in total guaiacyl (G) lignin units, a near total loss(More)