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Metastasis, which commonly uses lymphatics, accounts for much of the mortality associated with cancer. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C coreceptor, neuropilin-2 (Nrp2), modulates but is not necessary for developmental lymphangiogenesis, and its significance for metastasis is unknown. An antibody to Nrp2 that blocks VEGFC binding disrupts(More)
Bone-marrow-derived cells facilitate tumour angiogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms of this facilitation are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that the related EG-VEGF and Bv8 proteins, also known as prokineticin 1 (Prok1) and prokineticin 2 (Prok2), promote both tissue-specific angiogenesis and haematopoietic cell mobilization. Unlike(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Few studies have concerned the absolute apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the normal human brain and the effect of aging on diffusion. Therefore, our purpose was to determine whether the average ADC (ADC(av)) values in the various regions of the brain differ with age, sex, or hemisphere and to establish reference values(More)
Priming of the organ-specific premetastatic sites is thought to be an important yet incompletely understood step during metastasis. In this study, we show that the metastatic tumors we examined overexpress granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), which expands and mobilizes Ly6G+Ly6C+ granulocytes and facilitates their subsequent homing at distant(More)
Melanoma inhibitory activity member 3 (MIA3/TANGO1) [corrected] is an evolutionarily conserved endoplasmic reticulum resident transmembrane protein. Recent in vitro studies have shown that it is required for the loading of collagen VII, but not collagen I, into COPII-coated transport vesicles. In this paper, we show that mice lacking Mia3 are defective for(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endothelins (ETs) are potent vasoconstrictors. Plasma ET levels increase during acute brain ischemia and may worsen the ischemic damage. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) are powerful tools for evaluation of acute cerebral ischemia. We studied the effects of A-127722, a novel ET(A)-selective ET antagonist, on(More)
This study investigated the role of spontaneous and induced spreading depression (SD) on the evolution of focal ischemia in vivo. We induced focal ischemia in 12 rats using the middle cerebral artery suture occlusion (MCAO) method. Chemical stimulation of nonischemic ipsilateral cortex by potassium chloride application (KCl group; n = 7) and saline (NaCl(More)
Fish stanniocalcin (STC) inhibits uptake of calcium and stimulates phosphate reabsorption. To determine the role of the highly homologous mammalian protein, STC-1, we created and characterized transgenic mice that express STC-1 under control of a muscle-specific promoter. STC-1 transgenic mice were smaller than wild-type littermates and had normal growth(More)
It has been recently reported that treatment with an anti-placenta growth factor (PlGF) antibody inhibits metastasis and primary tumor growth. Here we show that, although anti-PlGF treatment inhibited wound healing, extravasation of B16F10 cells, and growth of a tumor engineered to overexpress the PlGF receptor (VEGFR-1), neutralization of PlGF using four(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Brain ischemia is associated with a marked increase in extracellular adenosine levels. This results in activation of cell surface adenosine receptors and some degree of neuroprotection. Adenosine kinase is a key enzyme controlling adenosine metabolism. Inhibition of this enzyme enhances the levels of endogenous brain adenosine already(More)