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A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the disposition of 2-butoxyethanol (CAS 111-76-2) and its major metabolite, 2-butoxyacetic acid, in rats and humans. A previous human inhalation model by Johanson (Toxicol. Lett. 34, 23 (1986)) was expanded to include additional routes of exposure, physiological descriptions for rats,(More)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing the disposition of chloroform in mice, rats, and humans was developed. This model was designed to facilitate extrapolations from high doses, such as those used in chronic rodent studies, to low doses that humans may be exposed to in the workplace or the environment. Kinetic constants for mice and rats(More)
It has generally been assumed that the skin contributes only minor amounts to the total uptake of solvent vapors, relative to the respiratory tract. Contrary to this assumption, the widely used glycol ether solvent, 2-butoxyethanol (BE), has been reported to be more effectively absorbed through the skin (75% of the total uptake) than through the lungs of(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and often carcinogenic contaminants released into the environment during natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is the prototypical carcinogenic PAH, and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) is a less prevalent, but highly potent transplacental carcinogenic PAH. Both are(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants generated as byproducts of natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. Despite significant public health concern, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling efforts for PAHs have so far been limited to naphthalene, plus simpler PK models for pyrene, nitropyrene,(More)
Driven by major scientific advances in analytical methods, biomonitoring, computation, and a newly articulated vision for a greater impact in public health, the field of exposure science is undergoing a rapid transition from a field of observation to a field of prediction. Deployment of an organizational and predictive framework for exposure science(More)
Exposures to sufficiently high doses of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-methoxyethanol, 2-ME) have been found to produce developmental effects in rodents and nonhuman primates. The acetic acid metabolite of 2-ME, 2-methoxyacetic acid (2-MAA), is the likely toxicant, and, as such, an understanding of the kinetics of 2-MAA is important when assessing the(More)
An extensive database on the toxicity and modes of action of ethylene glycol (EG) has been developed over the past several decades. Although renal toxicity has long been recognized as a potential outcome, in recent years developmental toxicity, an effect observed only in rats and mice, has become the subject of extensive research and regulatory reviews to(More)
BACKGROUND Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-butoxyethanol) is not commonly associated with significant human poisoning. Exposures are usually through occupational contact and typically involve inhalation injury. Animal studies report severe hemolysis occurring in rats and mice. Rare published human cases give varied descriptions of the clinical course(More)
Developing detailed lung airway models is an important step towards understanding the respiratory system. While modern imaging and airway casting approaches have dramatically improved the potential detail of such models, challenges have arisen in image processing as the demand for greater detail pushes the image processing approaches to their limits. Airway(More)