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BACKGROUND Diarrhoeal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income countries. We designed the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to identify the aetiology and population-based burden of paediatric diarrhoeal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. METHODS The GEMS is a 3-year, prospective, age-stratified,(More)
Although several hundred regions of the human genome harbor signals of positive natural selection, few of the relevant adaptive traits and variants have been elucidated. Using full-genome sequence variation from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project and the composite of multiple signals (CMS) test, we investigated 412 candidate signals and leveraged functional(More)
BACKGROUND The 92 capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae differ greatly in nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence, invasiveness, and disease incidence. There has been some debate, though, regarding whether serotype independently affects the outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Published studies have shown variable results with regard to(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is estimated to cause 2 million deaths every year in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important cause of severe pneumonia. We aimed to assess the efficacy of a nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. METHODS We undertook a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in eastern Gambia. Children age(More)
We investigated the role of DC-SIGN (CD209), long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in 321 TB cases and 347 healthy controls from Guinea-Bissau. Five additional, functionally relevant SNPs within toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 4 and 9 were typed but(More)
UNLABELLED Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuels contains high concentrations of health damaging pollutants and is associated with an increased risk of childhood pneumonia. We aimed to design an exposure measurement component for a matched case-control study of IAP as a risk factor for pneumonia and severe pneumonia in infants and children in The(More)
Increasing knowledge about DosR regulon-encoded proteins has led us to produce novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for immunogenicity testing in human populations in three countries in Africa to which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A total of 131 tuberculin skin test-positive and/or ESAT-6/CFP10-positive, human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult(More)
BACKGROUND In developing countries, pneumonia and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are common in children under age 12 months and the mortality from meningitis is high. Protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have brought Hib disease under control in industrialised countries. We did a double-blind randomised trial in The Gambia to(More)
We combined two tuberculosis genome-wide association studies from Ghana and The Gambia with subsequent replication in a combined 11,425 individuals. rs4331426, located in a gene-poor region on chromosome 18q11.2, was associated with disease (combined P = 6.8 x 10(-9), odds ratio = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.13-1.27). Our study demonstrates that genome-wide(More)
BACKGROUND Host-related and environment-related factors have been shown to play a role in the development of tuberculosis (TB), but few studies were carried out to identify their respective roles in resource-poor countries. METHODS A multicentre case-control study was conducted in Guinée, Guinea Bissau, and The Gambia, from January 1999 to March 2001.(More)