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L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, the rate-limiting side effect in the therapy of Parkinson's disease, is mediated by activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the striatum. We found that Ras homolog enriched in striatum (Rhes), a striatal-specific protein, binds to and activates mTOR. Moreover, Rhes(-/-) mice showed reduced striatal mTOR(More)
The apoptotic actions of p53 require its phosphorylation by a family of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related-kinases (PIKKs), which include DNA-PKcs and ATM. These kinases are stabilized by the TTT (Tel2, Tti1, Tti2) cochaperone family, whose actions are mediated by CK2 phosphorylation. The inositol pyrophosphates, such as 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis utilizes many mechanisms to establish itself within the macrophage, and bacterially derived cAMP is important in modulating the host cellular response. Although the genome of M. tuberculosis is endowed with a number of mammalian-like adenylyl cyclases, only a single cAMP phosphodiesterase has been identified that can decrease(More)
We have used two-dimensional electrophoresis of enzyme-digested genomic DNA to identify a novel gene GAC1, which maps at 1q32.1 and which is overexpressed in malignant gliomas in which it is amplified. GAC1 encodes a protein which belongs to the leucine-rich repeat superfamily. Amplification and overexpression of GAC1 was demonstrated in two of eight tumors(More)
As traditional antidepressants act only after weeks/months, the discovery that ketamine, an antagonist of glutamate/N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, elicits antidepressant actions in hours has been transformative. Its mechanism of action has been elusive, though enhanced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a major feature. We report a(More)
Inositol polyphosphates containing an energetic pyrophosphate bond are formed primarily by a family of three inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) kinases (IP6K1-3). The Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) regulate diverse biological processes through substrate ubiquitylation. CRL4, comprising the scaffold Cullin 4A/B, the E2-interacting Roc1/2, and the adaptor(More)
Profound induction of immediate early genes (IEGs) by neural activation is a critical determinant for plasticity in the brain, but intervening molecular signals are not well characterized. We demonstrate that inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) acts noncatalytically as a transcriptional coactivator to mediate induction of numerous IEGs. IEG induction(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the indigenous drug arjunglucoside I (AG) against in vivo models of experimental leishmaniasis by incorporating it in surface hydrophilic co-polymeric nanogel particles of size less than 100 nm diameter and to compare its efficacy with that of the free drug as well as the drug(More)
The pattern recognition receptor RIG-I is critical for Type-I interferon production. However, the global regulation of RIG-I signaling is only partially understood. Using a human genome-wide RNAi-screen, we identified 226 novel regulatory proteins of RIG-I mediated interferon-β production. Furthermore, the screen identified a metabolic pathway that(More)
The human TAX-1 gene encodes a Mr 135,000 glycoprotein that is transiently expressed on the surface of a subset of neurons during development and is involved in neurite outgrowth. The TAX-1 gene has been mapped to a region on chromosome 1 that has been implicated in microcephaly and the Van der Woude syndrome. Using restriction landmark genome scanning to(More)