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Biases in information processing undoubtedly play an important role in the maintenance of emotion and emotional disorders. In an attentional cueing paradigm, threat words and angry faces had no advantage over positive or neutral words (or faces) in attracting attention to their own location, even for people who were highly state-anxious. In contrast, the(More)
The present paper reports three new experiments suggesting that the valence of a face cue can influence attentional effects in a cueing paradigm. Moreover, heightened trait anxiety resulted in increased attentional dwell-time on emotional facial stimuli, relative to neutral faces. Experiment 1 presented a cueing task, in which the cue was either an "angry",(More)
The rapid detection of facial expressions of anger or threat has obvious adaptive value. In this study, we examined the efficiency of facial processing by means of a visual search task. Participants searched displays of schematic faces and were required to determine whether the faces displayed were all the same or whether one was different. Four main(More)
In this article, we report two experiments that provide further evidence concerning the differential nature of implicit and explicit memory. In Experiment 1, subjects first undertook a sentence-verification task. While carrying out this task, half of the subjects were also required to carry out a secondary processing task involving tone monitoring.(More)
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) syndrome is usually defined as a condition where an individual experiences adverse health effects that he or she believes is due to exposure to objects that emit electromagnetic fields. The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire that would identify the key symptoms associated with EHS and determine how often(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with idiopathic environmental illness with attribution to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) believe they suffer negative health effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields from everyday objects such as mobile phone base stations. OBJECTIVES This study used both open provocation and double-blind tests to determine if sensitive and(More)
Memory for repeated items improves when presentations are spaced during study. In Experiment 1A, words were repeated either immediately or after 6 intervening items. Intentional learning occurred under either focused or divided attention. Retention was tested by either free recall or yes-no recognition. Divided attention did not affect the influence of(More)
The directed forgetting paradigm involves, under particular experimental circumstances, inhibitory mechanisms, which operate to the successful forgetting of irrelevant words. The item-by-item cueing method (e.g., Basden & Basden, 1996) was used to investigate the directed forgetting effect in young and old adults. Processing of the experimental words was(More)
The present study contributes to the ongoing debate over the extent to which attentive resources are required for emotion perception. Although fearful facial expressions are strong competitors for attention, we predict that the magnitude of this effect may be modulated by anxiety. To test this hypothesis, healthy volunteers who varied in their self-reported(More)
BACKGROUND A limited number of studies have assessed the tolerability and comfort experienced while undertaking transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). OBJECTIVE This study intended to assess tolerability and the level of comfort experienced in a large sample of participants undertaking tDCS for 30 min at 2 mA of current strength. Moreover, we(More)