Riccardo Belardinelli

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Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1PRF) is an mRNA recoding event utilized by cells to enhance the information content of the genome and to regulate gene expression. The mechanism of -1PRF and its timing during translation elongation are unclear. Here, we identified the steps that govern -1PRF by following the stepwise movement of the ribosome through(More)
All organisms incorporate post-transcriptional modifications into ribosomal RNA, influencing ribosome assembly and function in ways that are poorly understood. The most highly conserved modification is the dimethylation of two adenosines near the 3' end of the small subunit rRNA. Lack of these methylations due to deficiency in the KsgA methyltransferase(More)
Bacterial translation initiation factor IF2 promotes ribosomal subunit association, recruitment, and binding of fMet-tRNA to the ribosomal P-site and initiation dipeptide formation. Here, we present the solution structures of GDP-bound and apo-IF2-G2 of Bacillus stearothermophilus and provide evidence that this isolated domain binds the 50 S ribosomal(More)
During translation elongation, ribosome translocation along an mRNA entails rotations of the ribosomal subunits, swiveling motions of the small subunit (SSU) head and stepwise movements of the tRNAs together with the mRNA. Here, we reconstructed the choreography of the collective motions of the Escherichia coli ribosome during translocation promoted by(More)
Ribosome dynamics play an important role in translation. The rotation of the ribosomal subunits relative to one another is essential for tRNA-mRNA translocation. An important unresolved question is whether subunit rotation limits the rate of translocation. Here, we monitor subunit rotation relative to peptide bond formation and translocation using ensemble(More)
Elongation factor G (EF-G) is a GTPase that catalyzes tRNA and mRNA translocation during the elongation cycle of protein synthesis. The GTP-bound state of the factor on the ribosome has been studied mainly with non-hydrolyzable analogs of GTP, which led to controversial conclusions about the role of GTP hydrolysis in translocation. Here we describe a mutant(More)
The RsmG methyltransferase is responsible for N(7) methylation of G527 of 16S rRNA in bacteria. Here, we report the identification of the Thermus thermophilus rsmG gene, the isolation of rsmG mutants, and the solution of RsmG X-ray crystal structures at up to 1.5 A resolution. Like their counterparts in other species, T. thermophilus rsmG mutants are weakly(More)
Posttranscriptional modification of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) occurs in all kingdoms of life. The S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase KsgA introduces the most highly conserved rRNA modification, the dimethylation of A1518 and A1519 of 16S rRNA. Loss of this dimethylation confers resistance to the antibiotic kasugamycin. Here, we report(More)
The transition of the 30S initiation complex (IC) to the translating 70S ribosome after 50S subunit joining provides an important checkpoint for mRNA selection during translation in bacteria. Here, we study the timing and control of reactions that occur during 70S IC formation by rapid kinetic techniques, using a toolbox of fluorescence-labeled translation(More)
In each round of translation elongation, tRNAs and mRNA move within the ribosome by one codon at a time. tRNA-mRNA translocation is promoted by elongation factor G (EF-G) at the cost of GTP hydrolysis. The key questions for understanding translocation are how and when the tRNAs move and how EF-G coordinates motions of the ribosomal subunits with tRNA(More)