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This article summarizes major achievements and challenges of software resource estimation over the last 40 years, emphasizing the Cocomo suite of models. Critical issues that have enabled major achievements include the development of good model forms, criteria for evaluating models, methods for integrating expert judgment and statistical data analysis, and(More)
A s the Department of Defense (DoD) moves into more complex systems of systems and family of systems with the accompanying challenges of architectures and product lines, software will further dominate development and deployment. Future systems engineers will be required to have more knowledge of software in addition to hardware. This will be a challenging(More)
Organizational assessment is becoming increasingly important, both as a cross-time and cross-industry measurement and as a guiding force in enterprise transformation. Assessments provide crucial information about strengths, areas for improvement and potential investment strategies for achieving performance benefits. As performance is being recognized as a(More)
The development of COSYSMO has been an ongoing collaboration between industry, government, and academia since 2001. INCOSE provided expertise as well as a forum for collaboration between stakeholders that led to the eventual development of the model. In 2004, we provided eleven lessons learned from experiences collecting systems engineering data from six(More)
n the late 1970s and the early 1980s as software engineering was starting to take shape, software managers found they needed a way to estimate the cost of software development and to explore options with respect to software project organization , characteristics, and cost/schedule. Along with a number of commercial and proprietary cost/schedule estimation(More)
This paper presents quantitative results on the return on investment of systems engineering (SE-ROI) from an analysis of the 161 software projects in the COCOMO II database. The analysis shows that, after normalizing for the effects of other cost drivers, the cost difference between projects doing a minimal job of software systems engineering—as measured by(More)