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Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLs) from parasitic protozoa have been shown to exert a wide variety of effects on cells of the host innate immune system. However, the receptor(s) that are triggered by these protozoan glycolipids has not been identified. Here we present evidence that Trypanosoma cruzi-derived GPI(More)
Intracellular protozoan parasites are potent stimulators of cell-mediated immunity. The induction of macrophage proinflammatory cytokines by Trypanosoma cruzi is considered to be important in controlling the infection and the outcome of Chagas' disease. Here we show that the potent tumour necrosis factor-alpha-, interleukin-12- and nitric oxide-inducing(More)
In Chagas disease, CD8(+) T-cells are critical for the control of Trypanosoma cruzi during acute infection. Conversely, CD8(+) T-cell accumulation in the myocardium during chronic infection may cause tissue injury leading to chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC). Here we explored the role of CD8(+) T-cells in T. cruzi-elicited heart injury in C57BL/6 mice(More)
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, a highly debilitating human pathology that affects millions of people in the Americas. The sequencing of this parasite's genome reveals that trans-sialidase/trans-sialidase-like (TcS), a polymorphic protein family known to be involved in several aspects of T. cruzi biology,(More)
BACKGROUND The activation of innate immune responses by Plasmodium vivax results in activation of effector cells and an excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that may culminate in deleterious effects. Here, we examined the activation and function of neutrophils during acute episodes of malaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS Blood samples were(More)
BACKGROUND Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a debilitating illness that affects millions of people in the Americas. A major finding of the T. cruzi genome project was the discovery of a novel multigene family composed of approximately 1,300 genes that encode mucin-associated surface proteins (MASPs). The high level of(More)
Leishmania major promastigotes were found to avoid activation of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM0) in vitro for production of cytokines that are typically induced during infection with other intracellular pathogens. Coexposure of BMM0 to the parasite and other microbial stimuli resulted in complete inhibition of interleukin (IL) 12 (p40) mRNA(More)
TLRs function as pattern recognition receptors in mammals and play an essential role in the recognition of microbial components. We found that the injection of glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLs) from Trypanosoma cruzi into the peritoneal cavity of mice induced neutrophil recruitment in a TLR4-dependent manner: the injection of GIPL in the TLR4-deficient(More)