Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli

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Hemozoin (HZ) is an insoluble crystal formed in the food vacuole of malaria parasites. HZ has been reported to induce inflammation by directly engaging Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9, an endosomal receptor. "Synthetic" HZ (beta-hematin), typically generated from partially purified extracts of bovine hemin, is structurally identical to natural HZ. When(More)
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLs) from parasitic protozoa have been shown to exert a wide variety of effects on cells of the host innate immune system. However, the receptor(s) that are triggered by these protozoan glycolipids has not been identified. Here we present evidence that Trypanosoma cruzi-derived GPI(More)
The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread opportunistic parasite of humans and animals. Normally, T. gondii establishes itself within brain and skeletal muscle tissues, persisting for the life of the host. Initiating and sustaining strong T-cell-mediated immunity is crucial in preventing the emergence of T. gondii as a serious pathogen.(More)
Activation of innate immune cells by Trypanosoma cruzi-derived molecules such as GPI anchors and DNA induces proinflammatory cytokine production and host defense mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that DNA from T. cruzi stimulates cytokine production by APCs in a TLR9-dependent manner and synergizes with parasite-derived GPI anchor, a TLR2 agonist,(More)
BALB/c mice vaccinated with a temperature-sensitive mutant (TS-4) of Toxoplasma gondii develop complete resistance to lethal challenge with a highly virulent toxoplasma strain (RH). This immunity is known to be dependent on IFN-gamma synthesis. In vitro and in vivo T cell depletions were performed in order to identify the subsets responsible for both(More)
To examine the function of IL-10 synthesis during early infection with the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, IL-10 knockout (KO) mice were inoculated with an avirulent parasite strain (ME-49). In contrast to control littermates that displayed 100% survival, the IL-10-deficient animals succumbed within the first 2 wk of the infection, with no(More)
In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to assess the involvement of IL-12 in resistance to acute and chronic infection with an avirulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii. Our previous findings implicated macrophages as a major source of parasite-induced IL-12. This finding was confirmed by showing that peritoneal macrophages exposed to either live parasites(More)
C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with an avirulent strain (ME-49) of Toxoplasma gondii were used to study the mechanisms by which T lymphocytes and IFN-gamma prevent reactivation of latent infection. Infected animals were treated with mAb, either anti-CD8, anti-CD4, anti-CD4 plus anti-CD8, anti-IFN-gamma, or anti-CD4 plus anti-IFN-gamma and the mice(More)
Immunity against the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is highly dependent on interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). We have previously shown that, in addition to T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells can be stimulated by the parasite to produce this cytokine by a reaction requiring adherent accessory cells and tumor necrosis factor alpha. We now(More)
GPIs isolated from Toxoplasma gondii, as well as a chemically synthesized GPI lacking the lipid moiety, activated a reporter gene in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing TLR4, while the core glycan and lipid moieties cleaved from the GPIs activated both TLR4- and TLR2-expressing cells. MyD88, but not TLR2, TLR4, or CD14, is absolutely needed to trigger(More)