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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for normal embryonic development, and maintenance of adult vascular function. Originally described as a vascular permeability factor, VEGF alters tight cell junctions and contributes to maintenance of bladder permeability. VEGF and its receptors are not only expressed in bladder blood vessels but also(More)
The role of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R) in the interaction between mast cells and substance P (SP) in bladder inflammation was determined. Mast cell-deficient Kit(W)/Kit(W-v), congenic normal (+/+), and Kit(W)/Kit(W-v) mice that were reconstituted with bone marrow cells isolated from NK1R(-/-) mice were challenged by instillation of SP, antigen, or saline(More)
Urinary bladders of normal adult female guinea pigs were analyzed for anatomical evidence of nerve-mast cell interaction using light microscopy and electron microscopy. Nerves, ganglia, and individual nerve fibers were visualized on paraffin sections using immunohistochemistry with antisera against the neural antigens neurofilament protein and protein gene(More)
BACKGROUND All four PARs are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered during inflammation. In order to search for therapeutic targets other than the receptors themselves, we set forth to determine TFs downstream of PAR activation in the C57BL/6 urinary bladders. METHODS For this purpose, we used a protein/DNA combo array containing(More)
This work tests the hypothesis that bladder instillation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) modulates sensory and motor nerve plasticity, and, consequently, bladder function and visceral sensitivity. In addition to C57BL/6J, ChAT-cre mice were used for visualization of bladder cholinergic nerves. The direct effect of VEGF on the density of(More)
Neurokinin 1 (NK(1)) receptors play a fundamental role in neurogenic inflammation. We sought to determine the mechanisms downstream from NK(1) receptor (NK(1)R) activation using cDNA arrays and a novel statistical method to analyze gene expression. We used female NK(1)R(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice that were sensitized actively by intraperitoneal injections(More)
BACKGROUND Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is an effective treatment for bladder superficial carcinoma and it is being tested in interstitial cystitis patients, but its precise mechanism of action remains poorly understood. It is not clear whether BCG induces the release of a unique set of cytokines apart from its pro-inflammatory effects.(More)
BACKGROUND Protease-activated receptors (PAR) are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered in response to inflammation. PARs are a unique class of G protein-coupled that carry their own ligands, which remain cryptic until unmasked by proteolytic cleavage. Although the canonical signal transduction pathway downstream of PAR activation(More)
Inflammation is an inherent response of the organism that permits its survival despite constant environmental challenges. The process normally leads to recovery from injury and to healing. However, if targeted destruction and assisted repair are not properly phased, chronic inflammation can result in persistent tissue damage. To better understand the(More)
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic and painful bladder syndrome of unknown cause with no reliable biological marker or effective therapy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which plays a key role in bladder inflammation, is closely associated with the vascular alterations observed in patients with IC. However, our recent findings of VEGF(More)