Ricardo S Ramiro

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Over the last 6 decades, rodent Plasmodium species have become key model systems for understanding the basic biology of malaria parasites. Cell and molecular parasitology have made much progress in identifying genes underpinning interactions between malaria parasites, hosts, and vectors. However, little attention has been paid to the evolutionary genetics(More)
Understanding how natural selection shapes the traits of infectious disease causing organisms is central to evaluating the likely success of intervention strategies and virulence management (Stearns and Koella 2007). Evolutionary theory has been successfully developed as a tool for investigating the ultimate causation of biological variation in(More)
Sexual reproduction is an obligate step in the life cycle of many parasites, including the causative agents of malaria (Plasmodium). Mixed-species infections are common in nature and consequently, interactions between heterospecific gametes occur. Given the importance of managing gene flow across parasite populations, remarkably little is understood about(More)
Antagonistic interactions are likely important driving forces of the evolutionary process underlying bacterial genome complexity and diversity. We hypothesized that the ability of evolved bacteria to escape specific components of host innate immunity, such as phagocytosis and killing by macrophages (MΦ), is a critical trait relevant in the acquisition of(More)
Malaria parasites must undergo a round of sexual reproduction in the blood meal of a mosquito vector to be transmitted between hosts. Developing a transmission-blocking intervention to prevent parasites from mating is a major goal of biomedicine, but its effectiveness could be compromised if parasites can compensate by simply adjusting their sex allocation(More)
Small-colony variants (SCVs) are commonly observed in evolution experiments and clinical isolates, being associated with antibiotic resistance and persistent infections. We recently observed the repeated emergence of Escherichia coli SCVs during adaptation to the interaction with macrophages. To identify the genetic targets underlying the emergence of this(More)
The relative role of drift versus selection underlying the evolution of bacterial species within the gut microbiota remains poorly understood. The large sizes of bacterial populations in this environment suggest that even adaptive mutations with weak effects, thought to be the most frequently occurring, could substantially contribute to a rapid pace of(More)
The evolution of new strains within the gut ecosystem is poorly understood. We used a natural but controlled system to follow the emergence of intraspecies diversity of commensal Escherichia coli, during three rounds of adaptation to the mouse gut (∼1,300 generations). We previously showed that, in the first round, a strongly beneficial phenotype(More)
A major challenge in disease ecology is to understand how co-infecting parasite species interact. We manipulate in vivo resources and immunity to explain interactions between two rodent malaria parasites, Plasmodium chabaudi and P. yoelii. These species have analogous resource-use strategies to the human parasites Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax: P.(More)
Hundreds of different bacterial species inhabit our intestines and contribute to our health status, with significant loss of species diversity typically observed in disease conditions. Within each microbial species a great deal of diversity is hidden and such intra-specific variation is also key to the proper homeostasis between the host and its microbial(More)
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