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1. At high internal K concentrations the efflux of Na from red cells increases with internal Na concentration following an S-shaped curve. As internal K is reduced the S-shaped region and the value of internal Na for which the Na efflux is half-maximal are both shifted progressively towards zero.2. The effects of internal Na on the shape of the Na efflux(More)
Twenty to fifty percent of the ouabain-insensitive Na+ and K+ fluxes in human red blood cells are mediated by Cl(-) -dependent coupled transport (cotransport). In this paper we report on the effect of the sulfhydryl group reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) on Cl(-) -dependent ouabain-insensitive Na+ and K+ fluxes in human red blood cells. We found that NEM(More)
Cyamemazine is an anxiolytic antipsychotic, which reduces ethanol withdrawal symptoms. Here, we investigated if cyamemazine can be also effective as substitute drug to facilitate benzodiazepine withdrawal. A total of 168 patients treated with benzodiazepines for at least 3 months and with a <18 score in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) were included(More)
In contrast to the accepted general assumption that polyethylene glycol (PEG) is non-immunogenic and non-antigenic, animal studies clearly showed that uricase, ovalbumin and some other PEGylated agents can elicit antibody formation against PEG (anti-PEG). In humans, anti-PEG may limit therapeutic efficacy and/or reduce tolerance of PEG-asparaginase(More)
The incidence of diabetic retinopathy is still increasing in developed countries. Tight glycemic control and laser therapy reduce vision loss and blindness, but do not reverse existing ocular damage and only slow the progression of the disease. New pharmacologic agents that are currently under development and are specifically directed against clearly(More)
Soy-based diets reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats, but apparently not in hypertensive humans. In the present study, the antihypertensive potential of soy milk (500 mL twice daily) compared with cow's milk was investigated in a 3-mo double-blind randomized study of 40 men and women with mild-to-moderate hypertension. Before initiation(More)
It is generally assumed that bumetanide possesses some selectivity for the renal Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC2, although the results are scarce in the literature and comparisons were done with extra-renal NKCC1 at its basal, almost silent state. Here we investigated NKCC2/NKCC1 selectivity of loop diuretic drugs (bumetanide, piretanide and furosemide) as a(More)
A new and simple laboratory test for measuring net Na+ and K+ fluxes in Na+-loaded/K+-depleted human erythrocytes was developed and applied to hypertension. Moderate essential hypertension (10 patients) was characterised by a constant increase in net K+ influx, possibly related to higher Na+, K+-pump activity. In more severe cases (8 patients) net Na+(More)