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The study of the liver stage of malaria has been hampered by limitations in the experimental approaches required to effectively dissect and quantify hepatocyte infection by Plasmodium. Here, we report on the use of flow cytometry, in conjunction with GFP-expressing Plasmodium sporozoites, to assess the various steps that constitute a successful malaria(More)
Immunisation with live, radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) or genetically attenuated sporozoites (GAS) of rodent plasmodial parasites protects against subsequent challenge infections. We recently showed that immunisation with Plasmodium berghei GAS that lack the microneme protein P36p protects mice for a period of up to 4 months. Here, we show that the(More)
Reversing the spread of HIV infection and the incidence of malaria constitute two of the Millenium Development Goals. However, despite recent achievements, both diseases still entail global heath problems. Furthermore, their overlapping geographical distribution raises concerns and challenges for potential immunological, clinical and therapeutic(More)
Plasmodium falciparum is the major cause of malaria globally and is transmitted by mosquitoes. During parasitic development, P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (P. falciparum-IEs) express multiple polymorphic proteins known as variant surface antigens (VSAs), including the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). VSA-specific antibodies are(More)
Sequence diversity in pathogen antigens is an obstacle to the development of interventions against many infectious diseases. In malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the PfEMP1 family of variant surface antigens encoded by var genes are adhesion molecules that play a pivotal role in malaria pathogenesis and clinical disease. PfEMP1 is a major target of(More)
BACKGROUND Rosetting is a Plasmodium falciparum virulence factor implicated in the pathogenesis of life-threatening malaria. Rosetting occurs when parasite-derived P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein One (PfEMP1) on the surface of infected erythrocytes binds to human receptors on uninfected erythrocytes. PfEMP1 is a possible target for a vaccine to(More)
The spectrum of the clinical presentation and severity of malaria infections is broad, ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to severe forms of disease such as cerebral malaria (CM), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or severe anemia (SA). Rodent models that mimic human CM, PAM and(More)
Life-threatening Plasmodium vivax malaria cases, while uncommon, have been reported since the early 20th century. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of these severe vivax malaria cases is still poorly understood. In Brazil, the proportion of vivax malaria cases has been steadily increasing, as have the number of cases presenting serious clinical complications.(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnant women residing in malaria endemic areas are highly susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum malaria, particularly during their first pregnancy, resulting in low birth weight babies and maternal anaemia. This susceptibility is associated with placental sequestration of parasitised red blood cells expressing pregnancy-specific variant surface(More)
HIV infection increases the burden of disease of malaria in pregnancy, in part by impairing the development of immunity. We measured total IgG and phagocytic antibodies against variant surface antigens of placental-type CS2 parasites in 187 secundigravidae (65% HIV infected). In women with placental malaria infection, phagocytic antibodies to CS2(VSA) were(More)