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Thyroid hormones have widespread cellular effects; however it is unclear whether their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to global energy balance. Here we demonstrate that either whole-body hyperthyroidism or central administration of triiodothyronine (T3) decreases the activity of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK),(More)
Current evidence suggests that hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism may play a role in regulating food intake; however, confirmation that it is a physiologically relevant regulatory system of feeding is still incomplete. Here, we use pharmacological and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the physiological orexigenic response to ghrelin involves specific(More)
Evidence suggests that the adipocyte-derived hormone resistin (RSTN) directly regulates both feeding and peripheral metabolism through, so far, undefined hypothalamic-mediated mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that the anorectic effect of RSTN is associated with inappropriately decreased mRNA expression of orexigenic (agouti-related protein and neuropeptide(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a kinase cascade that acts as a gauge of cellular energy levels. Over the last few years, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that AMPK is also involved in the regulation of energy balance at the whole-body level by responding to hormones and nutrient signals, which leads to changes in(More)
Recent studies suggest that asymptomatic dogs infected with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) develop a Th1 immunological profile whilst oligosymptomatic and symptomatic CVL-infected animals present a Th2 profile. In the present study, an RT-PCR method has been standardised and employed to evaluate the frequency and the semi-quantitative level of(More)
Nicotine has marked effects on sleep, arousal and body weight. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these actions are not fully understood. Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently discovered neuropeptide regulating sleep, anxiety and feeding. Here, we examined the effect of acute and chronic nicotine treatment on the expression of NPS and its receptor(More)
Caffeine has marked effects on sleep, arousal and food intake. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these actions are not fully understood. Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently discovered neuropeptide regulating both sleep and feeding. Here, we examined the effect of acute and chronic caffeine treatment on the expression of neuropeptide S and its(More)
The orexigenic effect of ghrelin is mediated by neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). Recent evidence also indicates that ghrelin promotes feeding through a mechanism involving activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid(More)
We recently reported that the hypothalamic homeobox domain transcription factor Bsx plays an essential role in the central nervous system control of spontaneous physical activity and the generation of hyperphagic responses. Moreover, we found Bsx to be a master regulator for the hypothalamic expression of key orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti(More)
Estrogens play a major role in the modulation of energy balance through central and peripheral actions. Here, we demonstrate that central action of estradiol (E2) inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) selectively in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), leading to activation of thermogenesis in(More)