Ricardo Jorge Fernandes

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The relationships between the start time and kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic data were examined in order to establish the common features of an effective backstroke swimming start. Complementarily, different starting positions were analysed to identify the parameters that account for the fastest backstroke start time under different constraints. 6(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the hip point and the centre of mass for kinematical parameters (displacement, velocity and acceleration) in the three axes of motion. One complete stroke cycle was analyzed in eight swimmers performing a 25 m front crawl swim test at high intensity. Within-subject correlation coefficients(More)
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the intra-cycle variation of the horizontal velocity of displacement of the center of mass (dV), the hand's and feet's velocity, as well as, to identify the variables that most predict the dV's, in butterfly stroke. The study was divided in two parts. The aim of Part I was to investigate the(More)
This study analysed motor control during front crawl swimming starts by elite and trained swimmers, based on comparisons of: 1) kinematic and kinetic parameters of the start and 2) variability of these parameters across 3 trials per swimmer. Given that the start time to the 15-m mark is greatly influenced by the swimming phase, the study also compared the(More)
To estimate the anaerobic alactic contribution in a 200 m middle distance swimming trial by means of two different methods based: (1) on the fast component of the $$ \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{ 2} $$ off-kinetics (Anarecovery) and (2) on the kinetics of maximal phosphocreatine splitting in the contracting muscle (Anapcr). Ten elite male swimmers performed a 200 m(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the energy cost (C) and the 3D intracycle velocity variation (IVV; swimming direction—x, vertical—y and lateral—z axes) throughout the 200 m front crawl event. Ten international level swimmers performed a maximal 200 m front crawl swim followed by 50, 100 and 150 m bouts at the same pace as(More)
Our aim was to determine the 3-dimensional intracycle velocity variation (IVV) of the body centre of mass during a 200-m front crawl event, and to analyse its relation with the segmental hand kinematics and the velocity (v) changes. 10 high-level male swimmers performed a 200-m front crawl swim at maximal intensity. 2 above- and 4 underwater cameras were(More)
The purpose of this study was to analyse eventual kinematic and electromyographic changes during a maximal 200 m front crawl at race pace. 10 male international level swimmers performed a 200 m maximal front crawl test. Images were recorded by 2 above and 4 under water cameras, and electromyographic signals (EMG) of 7 upper and lower limbs muscles were(More)
The Index of Coordination has been currently used as a tool that measures the inter-arm lag time between propulsive phases in front crawl swimming. The aim of the present study was to assess the inter-arm coordinative structure during a 200m front crawl maximal effort, as well as to understand its interplay with the stroking parameters. One complete arm(More)
The aim of this study was to present a review on the time to exhaustion at the minimum swimming velocity corresponding to maximal oxygen consumption (TLim-vVO2max). This parameter is critical both for the aerobic power and the lactate tolerance bioenergetical training intensity zones, being fundamental to characterize it, and to point out its main(More)