Ricardo Halpern

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The association between the intensity and duration of cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the frequency of low birthweight, preterm births and intrauterine growth retardation was investigated in a historical cohort. All 5166 livebirths occurring in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 1993 were identified and mothers interviewed soon after delivery.(More)
BACKGROUND Low birthweight infants suffer greater mortality and neonatal morbidity, grow less well in infancy and show poorer psycho-motor development. However, this simple categorization may obscure important differences in aetiology and prognosis between infants born stunted, thin, or both. METHODS In 1993, all births in Pelotas, Brazil, were enrolled(More)
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Scoliosis is not a diagnosis, but a description of a structural alteration that occurs in a variety of conditions. Progression of the curvature during periods of rapid growth may result in severe deformity, which may be accompanied by cardiopulmonary compromise. This study had the aims of measuring the prevalence of scoliosis among(More)
OBJECTIVE To present an up-to-date review about environmental influences on child mental health, describing major risk factors and discussing recommendations for intervention by pediatricians. SOURCES OF DATA MEDLINE, PsycLIT and Lilacs, technical books and publications about child development and child and adolescent mental health problems and health(More)
BACKGROUND Most studies of injuries use health services records or recall rather than prospective methods, and there is no information on how these different methods compare. This study was aimed at comparing a report (retrospective) with a diary (prospective) for recording childhood injuries. METHODS The study included 1,273 and 620 children, the(More)
All 5304 births in the hospitals of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil in 1993 were studied. Neonates were examined and their mothers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic conditions, family income, reproductive health, and medical care during pregnancy. Ninety-five per cent of women received prenatal care. The mean number of physician visits during(More)
OBJECTIVE Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. DATA SOURCE The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms "excessive crying," and(More)
Two cohorts of children born in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1993 and 2004, were compared in terms of neuro-psychomotor development at the age of 12 months. Children were evaluated using the Denver II screening test. Analyses were performed using the Poisson regression technique. The prevalence of suspected developmental delay fell from 37.1% in(More)
BACKGROUND Child health has improved in many developing countries, bringing new challenges, including realization of the children's full physical and intellectual potential. This study explored child development within a birth cohort, its psychosocial determinants and interactions with maternal schooling and economic position. METHODS All children born in(More)
BACKGROUND Due to the mechanism of action of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in drug addiction, the DAT1 gene is a potential candidate for molecular studies. This paper aims to compare the prevalence of allele and genotype frequencies created by the 3' UTR variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) of this gene between crack cocaine users and controls. (More)