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The authors assessed aggressive behavior in 89 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 26 patients with multiple trauma but without TBI using a quantitative scale (the Overt Aggression Scale) and examined its clinical correlates. Aggressive behavior was found in 33.7% of TBI patients and 11.5% of patients without TBI during the first 6 months after(More)
BACKGROUND Major depression is a frequent psychiatric complication among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To our knowledge, however, the clinical correlates of major depression have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical, neuropsychological, and structural neuroimaging correlates of major depression occurring after(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been estimated that 10%-20% of U.S. veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan experienced mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), mostly secondary to blast exposure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may detect subtle white matter changes in both the acute and chronic stages of mild TBI and thus has the potential to detect white matter damage in(More)
The frequency, course, and clinical correlates of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and its relationship to major depression were examined in 66 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Of 66 TBI patients, 7 (11%) had both GAD and major depression; 10 (15%) had major depression without GAD. Median duration was 1.5 months for nonanxious depressions, 7.5(More)
CONTEXT Alcohol abuse and/or dependence (AA/D) and mood disturbance are co-occurring conditions among patients who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the relationship between these disorders has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship of AA/D and post-TBI mood disorders and the effect of these conditions on(More)
The cognitive effects of active and sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were examined in 19 middle-aged and elderly patients with refractory depression. Patients received either active (n = 9) or sham (n = 10) rTMS targeted at the anterior portion of the left middle frontal gyrus. Patients in the active rTMS group improved significantly(More)
OBJECTIVE In this study patients were examined during the first year after traumatic brain injury to determine the presence of secondary mania. METHOD A consecutive series of 66 patients with closed-head injury were evaluated in the hospital and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The patients were examined with a semistructured psychiatric interview and(More)
OBJECTIVE Poststroke depression has been shown to increase mortality for more than 5 years after the stroke. The authors assessed whether antidepressant treatment would reduce poststroke mortality over 9 years of follow-up. METHOD A total of 104 patients were randomly assigned to receive a 12-week double-blind course of nortriptyline, fluoxetine, or(More)
BACKGROUND Depression has a significant impact on poststroke recovery and mortality. There are a proportion of patients with poststroke depression (PSD) who do not respond to antidepressants. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) might be a safe and effective alternative in these refractory cases. METHODS We conducted a randomized, parallel,(More)
Rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsal lateral frontal cortex has been shown to produce antidepressant effects. Older depressed patients, however, in one study showed a lower response rate than younger patients. The current study examined treatment response in 20 depressed, treatment-refractory patients (mean age 60.7 +/-(More)