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Programs that monitor local, national, and regional levels of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance inform treatment guidelines and provide feedback on the success of HIV-1 treatment and prevention programs. To accurately compare transmitted drug resistance rates across geographic regions and times, the World Health Organization has recommended the adoption of(More)
MOTIVATION Genetic analysis of HIV-1 is important not only for vaccine development, but also to guide treatment strategies, track the emergence of new viral variants and ensure that diagnostic assays are contemporary and fully optimized. However, most genotyping methods are laborious and complex, and involve the use of multiple software applications. Here,(More)
BACKGROUND The genetic differences among HIV-1 subtypes may be critical to clinical management and drug resistance surveillance as antiretroviral treatment is expanded to regions of the world where diverse non-subtype-B viruses predominate. METHODS AND FINDINGS To assess the impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral treatment on the distribution of(More)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) antiviral resistance is a major cause of antiviral therapy failure and compromises future treatment options. As a consequence, resistance testing is the standard of care. Because of the high degree of HIV-1 natural variation and complex interactions, the role of resistance mutations is in many cases insufficiently(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. RESULTS In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1(More)
MOTIVATION HIV-1 antiviral resistance is a major cause of antiviral treatment failure. The in vivo fitness landscape experienced by the virus in presence of treatment could in principle be used to determine both the susceptibility of the virus to the treatment and the genetic barrier to resistance. We propose a method to estimate this fitness landscape from(More)
Despite improvements in HIV treatment, the prevalence of multidrug resistance and full class resistance is still reported to be increasing. However, to investigate whether current treatment strategies are still selecting for multidrug and full class resistance, the incidence, instead of the prevalence, is more informative. Temporal trends in multidrug(More)
Understanding HIV-1 subtype distribution and epidemiology can assist preventive measures and clinical decisions. Sequence variation may affect antiviral drug resistance development, disease progression, evolutionary rates and transmission routes. We investigated the subtype distribution of HIV-1 in Europe and Israel in a representative sample of patients(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a genome that is rich in adenine, and its rapid evolution shows an observed bias of guanine (G) to adenine (A) mutations. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain these properties: (1) an imbalance in dNTP pool concentrations which drives the misincorporation process during reverse transcription, and (2)(More)
International travel plays a role in the spread of HIV-1 across Europe. It is, however, not known whether international travel is more important for spread of the epidemic as compared to endogenous infections within single countries. In this study, phylogenetic associations among HIV of newly diagnosed patients were determined across Europe. Data came from(More)