Ricardo Araya

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Many of the standardized interviews currently used in psychiatry require the interviewer to use expert psychiatric judgements in deciding upon the presence or absence of psychopathology. However, when case definitions are standardized it is customary for clinical judgements to be replaced with rules. The Clinical Interview Schedule was therefore revised, in(More)
We review the evidence on effectiveness of interventions for the treatment and prevention of selected mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression can be treated effectively in such countries with low-cost antidepressants or with psychological interventions (such as cognitive-behaviour therapy and interpersonal therapies).(More)
BACKGROUND Screening of patients for common mental disorders (CMDs) is needed in primary-care management programmes. This study aimed to compare the screening properties of five widely used questionnaires. METHOD Adult attenders in five primary-care settings in India were recruited through systematic sampling. Four questionnaires were administered, in(More)
BACKGROUND Depression and anxiety disorders are common mental disorders worldwide. The MANAS trial aimed to test the effectiveness of an intervention led by lay health counsellors in primary care settings to improve outcomes of people with these disorders. METHODS In this cluster randomised trial, primary care facilities in Goa, India, were assigned (1:1)(More)
BACKGROUND Depression in women is one of the commonest problems encountered in primary care. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of a stepped-care programme with usual care in primary-care management of depression in low-income women in Santiago, Chile. METHODS In a randomised controlled trial, in three primary-care clinics in Chile, 240 adult female(More)
BACKGROUND Poverty and female gender have been found to be associated with depression and anxiety in developed countries. The rationale behind this paper was to bring together five epidemiological data sets from four low to middle income countries to examine whether key economic and development indicators such as income and poor education, and female(More)
BACKGROUND There is limited evidence that interventions for depression and other common mental disorders (CMD) can be integrated sustainably into primary health care in Africa. We aimed to pilot a low-cost multi-component 'Friendship Bench Intervention' for CMD, locally adapted from problem-solving therapy and delivered by trained and supervised female lay(More)
A validity study of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) against the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) was carried out on a sample of women attending a health care center in Santiago. One hundred and eight middle-class mothers filled in the EPDS and were later interviewed by the main author using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule (PAS). The(More)
OBJECTIVE Epidemiological studies in the United States consistently find autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to be overrepresented in high socioeconomic status (SES) families. These findings starkly contrast with SES gradients of many health conditions, and may result from SES inequalities in access to services. We hypothesized that prenatal measures of low,(More)
BACKGROUND There have been relatively few surveys in Latin America that have attempted to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in private households. AIMS To determine the prevalence of common mental disorders and socio-demographic correlates among adults from Santiago, Chile. METHOD Cross-sectional survey of private households with a(More)