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The summer of 2010 was exceptionally warm in eastern Europe and large parts of Russia. We provide evidence that the anomalous 2010 warmth that caused adverse impacts exceeded the amplitude and spatial extent of the previous hottest summer of 2003. "Mega-heatwaves" such as the 2003 and 2010 events likely broke the 500-year-long seasonal temperature records(More)
We present a new approach to improve the reliability of quantifying the impact of a heat wave on mortality rates. We show, for the recent European summer 2003 heat wave, that the use of absolute maximum temperature values, or number of days above a given threshold, can be misleading. Here, we have assessed the impact of the heat wave on Iberian mortality by(More)
This work analyzes the impact of temperature and air pollution on infant mortality in Madrid. Daily values of mortality of children younger than 10 years, maximum and minimum temperatures, and air pollutants were considered for an 11-year period. In winter, mortality was mostly associated with very low temperatures and high total suspended particles (TSP)(More)
An analysis of the frequency of cyclones and surface wind velocity for the Euro-Atlantic sector is performed by means of an objective methodology. Monthly and seasonal trends of cyclones and wind speed magnitude are computed and trends between 1960 and 2000 evaluated. Results reveal a significant frequency decrease (increase) in the western Mediterranean(More)
Meteorological observations made on board ships prior to 1854 have until now been overlooked in climatological research largely as a result of the lack of rigorous abstraction and treatment criteria. However, the CLIWOC project has shown that millions of potentially valuable observations have been preserved throughout Europe in the many logbooks that were(More)
Measures of wind strength and direction abstracted from European ships' logbooks during the recently finished CLIWOC project have been used to produce the first grid-ded Sea Level Pressure (SLP) reconstruction for the 1750–1850 period over the North Atlantic based solely on marine data. The reconstruction is based on a spatial regres-5 sion analysis(More)
Although the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a tropospheric phenomenon, its effects are also observed in the stratosphere. Traditionally, the study of ENSO above the troposphere has been difficult because of the lack of global observations at high altitudes and also because of the presence of other sources of variability whose signals are difficult(More)
This paper traces the history of the use of ships' logbooks in climatological studies from the earliest days of the 17th century to the present day. Although early theories concerning global air circulations by Halley and Hadley were based on information gathered by mariners and recorded in their logbooks, it has only been in the last two decades that(More)
The overall goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. The study population consisted of 302 owned dogs that had limited access to public areas. A fecal sample was collected from each animal and examined for GI parasites by conventional macroscopic analysis and(More)