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Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are key players in the early events of electrical signal transduction at chemical synapses. The family codes for a structurally conserved scaffold of channel proteins that open in response to the binding of neurotransmitter molecules. All proteins share a pentameric organization of identical or related subunits(More)
The X-ray structure of a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel from Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC) has recently provided structural insight into this family of ion channels at high resolution. The structure shows a homo-pentameric protein with a barrel-stave architecture that defines an ion-conduction pore located on the fivefold axis of symmetry. In this(More)
As an initial approach to optimize delta-aminolaevulinic acid (delta-ALA)-induced photosensitization of tumours, we examined the response of three enzymes of the haem biosynthetic pathway: delta-ALA dehydratase, porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and ferrochelatase. Only PBGD activity displayed a time- and dose-related increase in tumours after intravenous(More)
A partial saturation method is described for obtaining rapid images of tissue 1H spin-lattice relaxation rates following administration of the paramagnetic contrast agent gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate. The paramagnetic contribution to the relaxation rates is proportional to the concentration of contrast agent, making possible quantitative(More)
We have examined the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy against R3230AC rat mammary adenocarcinoma and human mesothelioma as xenografts in the same host. The results demonstrate that the xenografted human tumour is significantly more responsive to photodynamic treatment than the rodent mammary tumour. Studies also showed that the mesothelioma xenograft(More)
In situ fluorine NMR imaging has been used to measure vascularity in subcutaneously implanted mammary tumors. Oxyferol, a perfluorinated blood substitute comprised of an emulsion of 25% w/v perfluorotributylamine, was used as a tracer. Following iv administration, this perfluorocarbon emulsion remains primarily in the vasculature during the image(More)
Bovine estrogen receptor (ER) was purified to near homogeneity by estrogen response element (ERE) affinity chromatography, and its ERE binding ability was measured in vitro. Highly purified ER bound EREs with reduced affinity compared to partially purified ER. Partially purified ER contained hsp70, but highly purified ER did not. We examined whether(More)
Photodynamic therapy consists of the systemic administration of a derivative of haematoporphyrin (Photofrin II) followed 24-72 h later by exposure of malignant lesions to photoradiation. We investigated the efficacy of this treatment after direct intratumoral injection of Photofrin II. This direct treatment regimen resulted in higher rates of inhibition of(More)
Quantitative DNase I footprinting assays were employed to simultaneously measure the amount of estrogen receptor (ER) bound to each site in constructs containing multiple estrogen response elements (EREs). These assays revealed identical, high affinity ER-ERE binding, Kd of approximately 0.25 nM, for estradiol-liganded ER (E2-ER), 4-hydroxytamoxifen(More)
The mechanism whereby antiestrogens alter the ability of the estrogen receptor (ER) to enhance transcription of estrogen-regulated genes is largely unknown. The effect that selected estrogenic and antiestrogenic ligands have on binding of ER to specific DNA sequences, estrogen responsive elements (EREs) has been quantitated. No differences in purification(More)