Ricarda Diem

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In multiple sclerosis (MS), long-term disability is primarily caused by axonal and neuronal damage. We demonstrated in a previous study that neuronal apoptosis occurs early during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a common animal model of MS. In the present study, we show that, in rats suffering from myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(More)
Demyelination caused by inflammation of the CNS has been considered to be a major hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). Using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, we demonstrate that an immune-mediated attack of the optic nerve is accompanied by an early degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The decrease of neuronal cell density(More)
Neuronal and axonal damage is considered to be the main cause for long-term disability in multiple sclerosis. We analyzed the mechanism and kinetics of neuronal cell death in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) by combining an electrophysiological in vivo assessment of the optic pathway with(More)
Neurodegenerative processes determine the clinical disease course of multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory autoimmune CNS disease that frequently manifests with acute optic neuritis. None of the established multiple sclerosis therapies has been shown to clearly reduce neurodegeneration. In a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we recently(More)
Tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) prevented secondary death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after axotomy of the optic nerve in vivo. This RGC rescue was confirmed in vitro in a mixed retinal culture model. In accordance with our previous findings, TNF-alpha decreased outward potassium currents in RGCs. Antagonism of the TNF-alpha-induced decrease in(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the presence and consequences of tissue hypoxia in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS EAE was induced in Dark Agouti rats by immunization with recombinant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and adjuvant. Tissue hypoxia was assessed in vivo using 2 independent methods:(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS which leads to demyelination, axonal destruction and neuronal loss in the early stages. Available therapies mainly target the inflammatory component of the disease but fail to prevent neurodegeneration. To investigate the effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on the survival of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of oral delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastro-resistant DMF) on MRI lesion activity and load, atrophy, and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measures from the Comparator and an Oral Fumarate in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (CONFIRM) study. METHODS CONFIRM was a 2-year, placebo-controlled(More)
Primary demyelination with relative preservation of axons is considered to be one pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. However, imaging and pathomorphological studies have stimulated a recent re-emergence of interest in the axonal, neurodegenerative aspect of MS pathology. Axonal(More)
We have investigated the role of caspase-8 and its mode of activation during apoptosis of adult rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in vivo. Retinal pro-caspase-8 expression was almost completely restricted to RGCs. Although caspase-8 is known to be involved in death-receptor-dependent apoptosis, measurable caspase-8 activity or even RGC death could be(More)