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The trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) are committed and marked by reciprocal expression of Cdx2 and Oct4 in mouse late blastocysts. We find that the TE is not committed at equivalent stages in cattle, and that bovine Cdx2 is required later, for TE maintenance, but does not repress Oct4 expression. A mouse Oct4 (mOct4) reporter, repressed in mouse(More)
The extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE) is essential for mammalian placental formation and survival of the embryo in utero. We have obtained a mouse model lacking the ExE, by targeted deletion of the transcription factor Elf5. Although Elf5 mutant embryos implant and form an ectoplacental cone, no trophoblast stem (TS) cells can be derived, indicating that the(More)
OBJECTIVE Aggregation of human amylin/islet amyloid polypeptide (hA/hIAPP) into small soluble beta-sheet-containing oligomers is linked to islet beta-cell degeneration and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Here, we used tetracycline, which modifies hA/hIAPP oligomerization, to probe mechanisms whereby hA/hIAPP causes diabetes in hemizygous(More)
Mouse Elf5 is expressed exclusively in the trophectoderm from the late blastocyst stage to postgastrulation. We demonstrate here that the proximal promoter is used for trophectoderm expression but is not sufficient on its own. In transgenic assays, deletion of a differentially methylated region (DMR) within the promoter has no effect on the activation and(More)
The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and the MC4R knockout mouse and humans with MC4R defective mutations in only one allele indicate that there is a gene dosage effect. Alterations in gene expression levels for MC4R could, therefore, have significant effects on energy homeostasis. To begin to(More)
The ETS superfamily transcription factors Elf5 and Ets2 have both been implicated in the maintenance of the extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE) of the mouse embryo. While homozygous mutants of either gene result in various degrees of ExE tissue loss, heterozygotes are without phenotype. We show here that compound heterozygous mutants exhibit a phenotype(More)
Lipoprotein[a] (Lp[a]) is assembled by a two-step process involving an initial lysine-dependent binding between apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) and apolipoprotein[a] (apo[a]) that facilitates the formation of a disulphide bond between apoB-100Cys4,326 and apo[a]Cys4,057. Previous studies of transgenic mice expressing apoB-95 (4,330 amino acids) and apoB-97(More)
Treatment options for gestational diabetes (GDM) are limited. In order to better understand mechanisms and improve treatments, appropriate animal models of GDM are crucial. Heterozygous db mice (db/+) present with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and increased weight gain during, but not prior to, pregnancy. This makes them an ideal model for GDM.(More)
Organ formation requires the precise assembly of progenitor cells into a functional unit. Mechanical forces are likely to play a critical role in this process, but it is unclear how these are molecularly controlled during development. Here, we show that Wnt11/ Pk1a-mediated planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling coordinates formation of the zebrafish(More)
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