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trans-Splicing is essential for mRNA maturation in trypanosomatids. A conserved AG dinucleotide serves as the 3' splice acceptor site, and analysis of native processing sites suggests that selection of this site is determined according to a 5'-3' scanning model. A series of stable gene replacement lines were generated that carried point mutations at or near(More)
Leishmania major is a protozoan parasite that is transmitted to the mammalian host by its sand fly vector when the fly probes in the host's skin for a blood meal and injects the parasite within its saliva. In mice experimentally infected with L. major, outgrowth of CD4 type 1 (Th1) cells leads to resolution of the infection, but outgrowth of type 2 (Th2)(More)
There are potent immunomodulators in saliva of the bloodfeeding arthropods which transmit many of the world's most serious diseases that may benefit the arthropod by preventing the vertebrate host from becoming sensitized to the saliva. In addition, saliva can enhance transmission of parasites/pathogens by arthropods. As a result, vaccines that target the(More)
A potent inhibitor of mitogen-stimulated T cell proliferation exists in the saliva of several species of hard ticks, including the Lyme disease vector tick, Ixodes scapularis. Our characterization of this phenomenon has led to the identification of a possible mechanism for the T cell inhibitory activity of I. scapularis saliva. The T cell inhibitor can(More)
We describe here a strategy for introducing simultaneous, independent gene replacements into the Trypanosoma cruzi chromosome. The goal of this study was to use two linear DNA fragments to simultaneously replace the CalA2 calmodulin and FUS1 ubiquitin-fusion genes with the neomycin resistance (neo(r)) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) genes,(More)
Many genes in trypanosomes exist as members of multicopy gene families. Due to this fact it is frequently difficult to determine if specific members of a gene family are expressed. We describe here a strategy for simultaneous tandem gene replacement in T. cruzi which leads to the replacement of the gene of interest by a silent reporter gene, the expression(More)