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Event-related desynchronization (ERD) 2.0 sec before and 1.0 sec after movement in the frequency bands of 8-10, 10-12, 12-20 and 20-30 Hz and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) to self-paced movements were studied from subdural recordings over the central region in 3 patients, and from scalp-recorded EEGs in 20 normal volunteers. In direct(More)
Increased brain dopamine availability improves prolonged exercise tolerance in the heat. It is unclear whether supplementing the amino-acid precursor of dopamine increases exercise capacity in the heat. Eight healthy male volunteers [mean age 32 ± 11 (SD) years; body mass 75.3 ± 8.1 kg; peak oxygen uptake ( $$ \dot{V}O_{{2peak}} $$ ) 3.5 ± 0.3 L min−1](More)
PURPOSE Acute oral tyrosine administration has been associated with increased constant-load, submaximal exercise capacity in the heat. This study sought to determine whether self-paced exercise performance in the heat is enhanced with the same tyrosine dosage. METHODS After familiarization, seven male endurance-trained volunteers, unacclimated to exercise(More)
We hypothesized that the reduction of O2-carrying capacity caused by the withdrawal of approximately 450 ml blood would result in slower phase II O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics, a lower VO2peak and a reduced time to exhaustion during severe-intensity cycle exercise. Eleven healthy subjects (mean +/- S.D. age 23 +/- 6 years, body mass 77.2 +/- 11.0 kg) completed(More)
Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. The aims of this study were to identify the effects of 4 weeks of COL supplementation on neutrophil responses and mucosal immunity following prolonged exercise. In a randomized double-blind, parallel group design, participants [age 28 ± 8 years;(More)
BACKGROUND Heavy exercise causes gut symptoms and, in extreme cases, heat stroke that is due to the increased intestinal permeability of luminal toxins. OBJECTIVE We examined whether zinc carnosine (ZnC), a health-food product taken alone or in combination with bovine colostrum (a natural source of growth factors), would moderate such effects. DESIGN(More)
Acute tyrosine administration is associated with increased exercise capacity in the heat. To explore whether reduced plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine (tyrosine precursor) is associated with impaired exercise capacity in the heat, eight healthy, moderately trained male volunteers, unacclimated to exercise in the heat, performed two tests in a crossover(More)
The aims of the study were to modify the training impulse (TRIMP) method of quantifying training load for use with intermittent team sports, and to examine the relationship between this modified TRIMP (TRIMP(MOD)) and changes in the physiological profile of team sport players during a competitive season. Eight male field hockey players, participating in the(More)
Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction and increased risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletic populations, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. During winter months, under double-blind procedures, 53 males (mean training load±SD, 50.5±28.9 MET-hweek(-1)) were randomized(More)
Although electromyographic (EMG) gradients have been observed in passive musculature during perceptual motor tasks, it is unclear whether this is related to metamotivational state or dominance. In addition, a misfit effect has been suggested whereby individuals report negative psychological responses when metamotivational state and dominance do not match.(More)