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BACKGROUND Non-technical skills are critical for good anaesthetic practice but are not addressed explicitly in normal training. Realization of the need to train and assess these skills is growing, but these activities must be based on properly developed skills frameworks and validated measurement tools. A prototype behavioural marker system was developed(More)
In UK industry, particularly in the energy sector, there has been a movement away fromìagging' measures of safety based on retrospective data, such as lost time accidents and incidents , towardsìeading' or predictive assessments of the safety climate of the organisation or worksite. A number of di€erent instruments have been developed by industrial(More)
Studies of performance in medicine are often based on observation. Videotape provides a valuable tool for recording events from both real environments and simulators. When analysing observational data it is important that robust tools are used, particularly when investigating non-technical (cognitive and social) skills. This paper describes the method used(More)
AIM To review quantitative studies of safety climate in health care to examine the psychometric properties of the questionnaires designed to measure this construct. METHOD A systematic literature review was undertaken to study sample and questionnaire design characteristics (source, no of items, scale type), construct validity (content validity, factor(More)
BACKGROUND Analyses of adverse events in surgery reveal that many underlying causes are behavioural, such as communication failure, rather than technical. Non-technical (i.e. cognitive and interpersonal) skills are not addressed explicitly in surgical training. However, surgeons need to demonstrate these skills, which underpin their technical excellence, to(More)
  • B Klampfer, R Flin, +45 authors Helmreich
  • 2001
Recommendations for the use of Behavioural Markers CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 6-9 Frequently Asked Questions about Behavioural Marker Systems BEHAVIOURAL MARKERS 1. What are behavioural markers? 10 2. How are behavioural markers derived? 10 3. What makes a good behavioural marker? 10 4. What are the domains of application? 11 5. What are the uses of behavioural(More)
BACKGROUND There is widespread recognition in high-risk organizations that leadership is essential for efficient and safe team performance. However, there is limited empiric evidence identifying specific leadership skills and associated behaviors enacted by surgeons during surgery. METHODS Observational data on surgeons' intraoperative leadership(More)
The importance of leadership for effective safety management has been the focus of research attention in industry for a number of years, especially in energy and manufacturing sectors. In contrast, very little research into leadership and safety has been carried out in medical settings. A selective review of the industrial safety literature for leadership(More)
A total of 128 children from each of two age groups (6-7 years and 10-11 years) took part individually in a simulated health check procedure. This involved direct confrontation between the child and an adult stranger in which the child was touched and an article of clothing (shoes) removed. One week later children took part in a series of tests which(More)