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OBJECTIVE Midlife obesity has been associated with an increased risk of dementia. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to examine the cross-sectional association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and computed tomography (CT)-based measurements of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT)(More)
CONTEXT The adipokine leptin facilitates long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, promotes beta-amyloid clearance, and improves memory function in animal models of aging and Alzheimer disease (AD). OBJECTIVE To relate baseline circulating leptin concentrations in a community-based sample of individuals without dementia to(More)
Numerous anatomical and brain imaging studies find substantial differences in brain structure between men and women across the span of human aging. The ability to extend the results of many of these studies to the general population is limited, however, due to the generally small sample size and restrictive health criteria of these studies. Moreover, little(More)
OBJECTIVE Our aim was to test the association of vascular risk factor exposure in midlife with progression of MRI markers of brain aging and measures of cognitive decline. METHODS A total of 1,352 participants without dementia from the prospective Framingham Offspring Cohort Study were examined. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were(More)
OBJECTIVE White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) detectable by magnetic resonance imaging are part of the spectrum of vascular injury associated with aging of the brain and are thought to reflect ischemic damage to the small deep cerebral vessels. WMHs are associated with an increased risk of cognitive and motor dysfunction, dementia, depression, and stroke.(More)
Heritability and genetic and environmental correlations of total and regional brain volumes were estimated from a large, generally healthy, community-based sample, to determine if there are common elements to the genetic influence of brain volumes and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume. There were 1538 Framingham Heart Study participants with brain(More)
OBJECTIVES To relate performance on tests of cognitive ability to the subsequent development of probable Alzheimer disease (pAD) and to identify the pattern of earliest changes in cognitive functioning associated with a diagnosis of pAD. DESIGN From May 1975 to November 1979, a screening neuropsychological battery was administered to Framingham Study(More)
BACKGROUND Mid-life stroke risk factors have been related to late-life cognitive impairment. This association may result not only from clinical strokes but also from subclinical brain injury, such as a global atrophy demonstrable on quantitative brain MRI. METHODS The authors evaluated the community-based cohort of Framingham Offspring Study participants.(More)
BACKGROUND Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cognitive tests can identify heritable endophenotypes associated with an increased risk of developing stroke, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) and linkage analysis exploring the genetic basis of these endophenotypes in a community-based sample. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether low educational attainment is a risk factor for the incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Framingham Study and to determine whether age at onset of dementia is earlier in persons with low educational levels. DESIGN A community-based cohort was studied longitudinally for the development of dementia.(More)