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Within the endemic invertebrate faunas of hydrothermal vents, five biogeographic provinces are recognized. Invertebrates at two Indian Ocean vent fields (Kairei and Edmond) belong to a sixth province, despite ecological settings and invertebrate-bacterial symbioses similar to those of both western Pacific and Atlantic vents. Most organisms found at these(More)
The short wavelength color mechanism in the human visual system can distinguish gratings from uniform fields of the same average radiance at spatial frequencies that are twice as high as the highest at which it can resolve bars in the grating. This discrimination above the resolution limit is associated with a splotchy or mottled appearance of the grating(More)
The tripartite toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, helps the bacterium evade the immune system and can kill the host during a systemic infection. Two components of the toxin enzymatically modify substrates within the cytosol of mammalian cells: oedema factor (OF) is an adenylate cyclase that impairs host defences through a(More)
The crystal structure of the diphtheria toxin dimer at 2.5 A resolution reveals a Y-shaped molecule of three domains. The catalytic domain, called fragment A, is of the alpha + beta type. Fragment B actually consists of two domains. The transmembrane domain consists of nine alpha-helices, two pairs of which are unusually apolar and may participate in(More)
The protective antigen component of anthrax toxin forms a homoheptameric pore in the endosomal membrane, creating a narrow passageway for the enzymatic components of the toxin to enter the cytosol. We found that, during conversion of the heptameric precursor to the pore, the seven phenylalanine-427 residues converged within the lumen, generating a radially(More)
The purpose of the study presented in this paper and the accompanying paper [Smits et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3865-3881 (1996)] is to evaluate whether detailed or gross time-frequency structures are more relevant for the perception of place of articulation of prevocalic stop consonants. To this end, first a perception experiment is carried out with(More)
In this study, a protein that interacts with sequences encoded by the first exon of the protein kinase Bcr was cloned. The Bcr-associated protein 1 (Bap-1) is a member of the 14-3-3 family of proteins. Bap-1 interacts with full-length c-Bcr and with the chimeric Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1)-positive human leukemias. Bap-1 is a(More)
The pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO) is a major virulence factor implicated in escape of Listeria monocytogenes from phagocytic vacuoles. Here we describe the pH-dependence of vacuolar perforation by LLO, using the membrane-impermeant fluorophore 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS) to monitor the pH and integrity of vacuoles in mouse bone(More)
When diphtheria toxin encounters a low pH environment, the channel-forming T domain undergoes a poorly understood conformational change that allows for both its own membrane insertion and the translocation of the toxin's catalytic domain across the membrane. From the crystallographic structure of the water-soluble form of diphtheria toxin, a "double dagger"(More)