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Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly(More)
SETTING Two rural districts in Malawi: Thyolo, where voluntary counselling and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing (VCT) is offered to all tuberculosis (TB) patients and adjunctive cotrimoxazole to HIV positives, and Mulanje, where no such interventions are offered. OBJECTIVES For all TB patients registered in 2001: 1) to determine the uptake of(More)
The rapid and massive scale-up of antiretroviral drug therapy (ART) so needed in sub-Saharan Africa will not be possible using a 'medicalised' model. A more simple approach is required. DOTS has been used now for many years to provide successful anti-tuberculosis treatment to millions of patients in poor countries of the world, and many of the established(More)
SETTING Fifteen hospitals in Malawi that offer voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for tuberculosis (TB) patients and cotrimoxazole (CTX) for patients found to be HIV-positive. OBJECTIVES 1) To describe the process of developing a national TB-HIV plan, conducting a country-wide situational assessment, and(More)
BACKGROUND The HIV and AIDS epidemic in Malawi poses multiple challenges from an equity perspective. It is estimated that 12% of Malawians are living with HIV or AIDS among the 15-49 age group. This paper synthesises available information to bring an equity lens on Counselling and Testing (CT) and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) policy, practice and provision(More)
Two country-wide surveys were undertaken to assess progress in scaling up human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and HIV-tuberculosis (TB) services in the public health sector in Malawi between 2002 and 2003. In 2003, 118 sites were performing counselling and HIV testing compared with 70 in 2002. There were 215 269 HIV(More)
BACKGROUND Until 2005, the Malawi National Tuberculosis Control Programme had been implemented as a vertical programme. Working within the Sector Wide Approach (SWAp) provides a new environment and new opportunities for monitoring the equity performance of the programme. This paper synthesizes what is known on equity and TB in Malawi and highlights areas(More)
BACKGROUND In Malawi, high case fatality rates in patients with tuberculosis, who were also co-infected with HIV, and high early death rates in people living with HIV during the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adversely impacted on treatment outcomes for the national tuberculosis and ART programmes respectively. This article i) discusses the(More)
A cross-sectional study was carried out in all 43 hospitals in Malawi that register and treat tuberculosis (TB) patients to determine whether there is care and treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) complications in TB patients. Of 1,416 adults with TB, 861 (61%) had HIV complications, 627 (44%) patients had received no ward round, and of 1,142(More)