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The parasite, Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle. It is transmitted vertically or horizontally and infection may result in abortion or the birth of a live, healthy but infected calf at full-term. Only a proportion of infected cattle abort and the pathogenesis of abortion is not understood. Groups of cattle were infected with 10(7)(More)
Stress is revealed by the inability of an animal to cope with its environment, a phenomenon that is often reflected in a failure to achieve genetic potential. Field data from dairy cows show that stressors such as milk fever or lameness increase the calving to conception interval by 13-14 days, and an extra 0.5 inseminations are required per conception. We(More)
Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle. It is normally found as a latent infection controlled by a T-helper-cell type 1 response involving CD4(+) cytotoxic T cells and gamma interferon. Cattle may be infected by two different routes: transplacentally as a result of activation of the latent infection(More)
The aim of the present study was to identify specific behavioral patterns that contribute to diminished estrus expression in lame cows. Behavioral scan and focal sampling were used to examine the effect of lameness on daily activity budgets, sexual behavior, feeding activities, and body condition score. A total of 59 milking cows (51.8 +/- 1.4 d postpartum)(More)
There is growing concern in many parts of the world that fertility of dairy cattle is reducing as milk yields increase. Stress could be one important cause. As an example, fertility is lower after caesarian operations. Delayed uterine involution after dystocia is associated with abnormal ovarian cyclicity and prolonged intervals to the next pregnancy. There(More)
The objectives of the present study were to determine if lameness, a model for a natural chronic stressor, affects hormone concentrations in milk prior to estrus and/or the subsequent expression of estrus in the postpartum period. Dairy cows>20 days postpartum were scored for lameness and observed for estrus intensity using a weighted scoring system (>100(More)
Nine cows which were naturally and persistently infected with Neospora caninum were housed and observed intensively throughout pregnancy. No recrudescence of a latent infection was detected by PCR tests on maternal blood but fetal infection, implying a recrudescence of maternal parasitosis, was associated with a marked increase in maternal antibody. The(More)
Transport of post-partum cows or sheep before an oestradiol-induced LH surge delayed gonadotrophin secretion possibly by affecting hypothalamic activity but not via an opioid mediated mechanism as the effect could not be reversed by naloxone. In addition, reduced LH responses to GnRH were observed in cattle during transport. In sheep, adrenocorticotrophic(More)
Successfully using artificial insemination (AI) is defined as getting cows pregnant when the farmer wants them in-calf and making the best use of appropriate genetic potential. Over the past 30 to 50 years, the percentage of animals in oestrus that stand-to-be-mounted (STBM) has declined from 80% to 50%, and the duration of STBM from 15 h to 5 h; both in(More)
There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression(More)