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It is the function of the vascular system, through a complex network of arteries, capillaries and veins, to maintain cellular homeostasis. As research scientists it is necessary to understand not only some of the basic properties of the blood vessel itself but also how these vessels differ in cellular and physiological function. This review provides an(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The activation of PPAR-gamma, an isotype of PPARs, can either increase or decrease the transcription of target genes. The genes controlled by this form of PPAR have been shown to encode proteins or peptides(More)
The effects of 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) on blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, cardiac index, heart rate and arterial conductance in different vascular beds in the presence and absence of hexamethonium (ganglionic blocker) and phenylephrine (alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist) were investigated in(More)
1.--We have examined the relationship between the resting membrane potential (E(m)) and the concentration of the external ions, K(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+), as well as the effects of K(+) on active force generation in human saphenous veins. 2.--As measured with sharp glass microelectrodes, the E(m) of vascular muscle cells was -76.0 +/- 7.0 mV (mean +/- SD; n =(More)
The most commonly employed techniques for the in vivo measurement of arterial blood flow to individual organs involve the use of flow probes or sensors. Commercially available systems for the measurement of in vivo blood flow can be divided into two categories: ultrasonic and electromagnetic. Two types of ultrasonic probes are used. The first type of flow(More)
Adenosine is widely distributed in mammals. One of the primary roles of adenosine within the cardiovascular system is to directly control the functions of both cardiac and vascular tissues. Recently, there has been considerable interest in the subclassification of adenosine receptors. Characterization of a heterogeneous population of receptors for adenosine(More)
The venous system is supremely important in the control of cardiac output. Drugs which affect the venous system have profound effects on haemodynamics. This review comments on the methods available for the determination of venous compliance, resistance, and unstressed volume and describes the mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) technique, its(More)
BACKGROUND Differences can exist in terms of physiology and morphology of blood vessels on the basis of gender. Radial artery is now considered to be the second choice for coronary artery bypass grafting. However, there is a lack of comparative studies on the function and morphometery of radial arteries in female and male patients. METHODS Radial arteries(More)
sanofi-aventis (formerly Aventis Pharma AG) is developing ilepatril (AVE-7688), a dual angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, for the potential treatment of hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. Ilepatril is currently in phase IIb/III clinical trials for hypertension and phase II trials for diabetic nephropathy. The company had(More)
The myocardium is the target of toxicity for a number of drugs. Based on pharmacological evidence, cellular targets for drugs that produce adverse reactions can be categorized into a number of sites that include the cell membrane-bound receptors, the second messenger system, ionic channels, ionic pumps, and intracellular organelles. Additionally,(More)