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X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) is an important regulator of a subset of genes active during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In the present study, we analyzed XBP1 level and location to explore the effect of ER stress on oocyte maturation and developmental competency of porcine embryos in an in vitro culture system. First, we examined the localization of(More)
Cell-to-cell contact mediated by cell adhesion is fundamental to the compaction process that ensures blastocyst quality during embryonic development. In this study, we first showed that Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) were expressed both in porcine oocytes and IVF preimplantation embryos, playing different roles in oocytes(More)
BACKGROUND Two stages of genome activation have been identified in the mouse embryo. Specifically, minor transcriptional activation is evident at the one-cell stage and a second major episode of activation occurs at the two-cell stage. Nuclear translocation of RNA polymerase II and phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest enzyme subunit(More)
The zebrafish model has been developed and evaluated for its ability to predict the toxicity of chemicals. Zebrafish additionally serve as an excellent model for assessing drug-induced cardiotoxicity, although zebrafish and mammalian hearts differ in structure. Recently, regulatory authorities have expressed concerns about a possible relationship between(More)
This study investigated whether treating fetal fibroblast cells (donor cells) with epigenetic modification-inducing drugs could improve the development of porcine cloned embryos. Donor cells were treated with different DNA methylation inhibitors (5-aza-dC, zebularine or RG108; 5nM) or histone deacetylase inhibitors (TSA, NaBu or SCR; 50nM) for 1h, and then(More)
The effects of different denuding procedures used during the in vitro culture of porcine embryos on oocyte damage and aspects of porcine embryo development were investigated in a series of studies. Oocytes were denuded by vortexing or pipetting after 44h in vitro maturation (IVM) or pre-denuded after 22h IVM. The total oocyte death rate was significantly(More)
BACKGROUND Germ cells differentiate into oocytes in females and are arrested at the first meiotic prophase. However, during arrest, oocytes undergo a growth phase leading to a dramatic increase in size, which is under control of transcription events. In the current study, we examined the transcriptional activity of growing pig oocytes using an(More)
Fertilization of the oocyte commences embryogenesis during which maternally inherited mRNAs are degraded and the embryonic genome is activated. Transcription of embryonic mRNA is initiated by embryonic genome activation (EGA). RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) is responsible for the synthesis of mRNAs and most small nuclear RNAs, and consists of 12 subunits,(More)
Positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is a RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain (Pol II CTD) kinase that phosphorylates Ser2 of the CTD and promotes the elongation phase of transcription. Despite the fact that P-TEFb has role in many cellular processes, the role of this kinase complex remains to be understood in mammalian early(More)
Histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) methylation is known to be associated with transcriptionally active genes, and is considered a genomic marker of active loci. To investigate the changes in H3K36 methylation in pig, we determined the mono-, di-, and tri-methylations of H3K36 (H3K36me1, H3K36me2 and H3K36me3, respectively) in porcine fetal fibroblasts, oocytes(More)