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In the recent years, many heuristic optimization algorithms have been developed. A majority of these heuristic algorithms have been derived from the behavior of biological or physical systems in nature. In this paper, we propose a new optimization algorithm based on competitive behavior of animal groups. In the proposed algorithm, the whole population is(More)
Learners'learning style has been one of the most important factors SLA researchers have focused on. However, Learners'learning styles have been ignored and have been considered as an insignificant component in the learning process. This paper aims at describing learning styles models, in particular Reid' s Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire(More)
In the recent years, many heuristic optimization algorithms derived from the behavior of biological or physical systems in nature have been developed. In this paper, we propose a new optimization algorithm based on competitive behavior of group animals. The competition gradually results in an increase in population of wealthy group which gives a fast(More)
Motivation is believed to be one very significant construct that imposes positive impact and enhances the learning in any second language learning context. Two types of motivation are known as the instrumental and integrative according to Gardner and Lambert's original work on attitudes and motivation. Any learner may have a motivation type based on his/her(More)
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