Reynaldo Martorell

Learn More
Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a(More)
In this paper we review the associations between maternal and child undernutrition with human capital and risk of adult diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from five long-standing prospective cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa and noted that indices of maternal and child(More)
Economic history has contributed significantly to the formulation of economic theory.* Among the economists who have found history an important source for their ideas are Smith, Malthus, Marx, Marshall, Keynes, Hicks, Arrow, Friedman, Solow, and Becker. Failure to take account of history, as Simon Kuznets (1941) stressed, has often led to a misunderstanding(More)
OBJECTIVES The key objective was to estimate obesity (>/=30 kg/m2) in women 15-49 y from developing countries. A second objective was to study how obesity varies by educational level and by residence in urban and rural areas. A third objective was to investigate how national incomes shape the relationship between obesity and eduction or residence. DESIGN(More)
OBJECTIVES This study assessed the effects of zinc supplementation in the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia with the use of a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials in children in developing countries. STUDY DESIGN Trials included were those that provided oral supplements containing at least one half of the United States Recommended Daily(More)
This paper is the third in the Child Development Series. The first paper showed that more than 200 million children under 5 years of age in developing countries do not reach their developmental potential. The second paper identified four well-documented risks: stunting, iodine deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia, and inadequate cognitive stimulation, plus(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate levels and trends in overweight and obesity in preschool children from developing countries; to study how overweight varies by the educational level of the mother, by urban or rural residence, and by gender; to investigate how these relationships are related to the gross national product (GNP). DESIGN 71 national nutrition surveys(More)
Thorough training, continuous standardization, and close monitoring of the adherence to measurement procedures during data collection are essential for minimizing random error and bias in multicenter studies. Rigorous anthropometry and data collection protocols were used in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study to ensure high data quality. After the(More)
BACKGROUND Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30-40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting(More)
This is an overview of the design and methods of the INCAP longitudinal study (1969-77) and its follow-up study (1988-89). The first study had the objective of assessing the effects of intrauterine and preschool malnutrition on growth and mental development. To achieve this, food supplements were provided to pregnant women and young children residing in(More)