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D-lactic acid is used as a monomer in the production of poly-D-lactic acid (PDLA), which is used to form heat-resistant stereocomplex poly-lactic acid. To produce cost-effective D-lactic acid by using all sugars derived from biomass efficiently, xylose-assimilating genes encoding xylose isomerase and xylulokinase were cloned into an L-lactate-deficient(More)
Clostridium difficile has been identified as the most important single identifiable cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. Virulent strains of C. difficile produce two large protein toxins, toxin A and toxin B, which are involved in pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of lysogeny by PhiCD119 on C. difficile toxin(More)
Clostridium difficile toxin synthesis is growth phase-dependent and is regulated by various environmental signals. The toxin genes tcdA and tcdB are located in a pathogenicity locus, which also includes three accessory genes, tcdR, tcdC and tcdE. TcdR has been shown to act as an alternative sigma factor that mediates positive regulation of both the toxin(More)
Nosocomial infections are increasingly being recognised as a major patient safety issue. The modern hospital environment and associated health care practices have provided a niche for the rapid evolution of microbial pathogens that are well adapted to surviving and proliferating in this setting, after which they can infect susceptible patients. This is(More)
The pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile, the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, is mainly associated with the production and activities of two major toxins. In many bacteria, toxins are released into the extracellular environment via the general secretion pathways. C. difficile toxins A and B have no export signature and their secretion is not(More)
In this study, we have isolated a temperate phage (PhiCD119) from a pathogenic Clostridium difficile strain and sequenced and annotated its genome. This virus has an icosahedral capsid and a contractile tail covered by a sheath and contains a double-stranded DNA genome. It belongs to the Myoviridae family of the tailed phages and the order Caudovirales. The(More)
Clostridium difficile produces two toxins, A and B, which act together to cause pseudomembraneous colitis. The genes encoding these toxins, tcdA and tcdB, are part of the pathogenicity locus, which also includes tcdC, a putative negative regulator of the toxin genes. In this study, we demonstrate that TcdC is a membrane-associated protein in C. difficile.
Clostridium difficile produces an NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), which converts l-glutamate into α-ketoglutarate through an irreversible reaction. The enzyme GDH is detected in the stool samples of patients with C. difficile-associated disease and serves as one of the diagnostic tools to detect C. difficile infection (CDI). We demonstrate here(More)
UNLABELLED Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen and the principal causative agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The toxigenic C. difficile strains that cause disease secrete virulence factors, toxin A and toxin B, that cause colonic injury and inflammation. C. difficile toxins have no export signature and are secreted by an unusual(More)