Reuven Levin

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The tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 for chemokine receptors plays an important role in the transmission of AIDS. Although CXCR4-tropic virus is more cytopathic for T cells, CCR5-tropic strains are transmitted more frequently in humans for reasons that are not understood. Phenotypically immature myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) are(More)
BACKGROUND Decades after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, the potential of the deliberate release of pathogenic orthopoxviruses has forced a reconsideration of using these extremely efficient human vaccines. Scenarios of sudden biothreats have prompted demand for rapidly protective vaccination. However, the feasibility of short-term vaccination (i.e.,(More)
Vaccinia virus protein A33 (A33VACV) plays an important role in protection against orthopoxviruses, and hence is included in experimental multi-subunit smallpox vaccines. In this study we show that single-dose vaccination with recombinant Sindbis virus expressing A33VACV, is sufficient to protect mice against lethal challenge with vaccinia virus WR(More)
Since smallpox eradication by the WHO during the 1980s, potency of new vaccines is compared to vaccines that were used during the eradication campaign. In this work we characterize the tail scarification technique in mice as a model for scarification in humans. Similar to humans, mice develop "clinical take" which is dependent on the vaccination dose.(More)
Primary dispersed and organotypic cultures were prepared from selected brain areas and spinal cords of rat (Sprague-Dawley) and mouse (SJL/OLA(F) Ness-Ziona) fetuses and neonates. Following fiber regeneration, synapse formation and myelination, cultures were infected with one of the following viruses: Rabies CVS-21 strain, Sindbis Alphavirus, West-Nile(More)
The pathogenicity of two encephalitic Togaviruses, Sindbis virus (SV), an alphavirus, and West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus, was studied in organotypic cultures of fetal mouse spinal cord slices grown in roller tubes. After about 3 weeks in vitro, during which time the cultures became abundantly myelinated, they were infected either by 5 X 10(5) PFU SV or(More)
Organotypic spinal cord cultures infected with West Nile Virus (WNV) exhibited a remarkable arrangement of virions among lamellae of the myelin sheath. Virions were first observed in neurons and only at day 4 after infection appeared within the myelin lamellae. Virions were observed only in the central myelin, aligned along the interperiod lines and(More)
Internal proteins, synthesized in T2-infected Escherichia coli B cells were recovered from bacterial membranes during the early stages of infection. Approx. 15 min after the onset of infection, T2 and T4 internal proteins were released from the bacterial membranes and sedimented along with newly synthesized phage DNA. Internal protein-DNA complexes were(More)