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A versatile voxel-based architecture for 3-D volume visualization, called the Cube architecture, is introduced. A small-scale prototype of the architecture has been realized in hardware and has been operating in true real-time, faster than the alternative voxel systems. The Cube architecture is centered around a 3-D cubic frame buffer, of voxels, and it(More)
Living cells are 3D objects with a complex inner structural organization. Understanding this organization and its relation to biological function constitutes a major challenge for cell biologists. This paper discusses the special properties of volumetric cell data (e.g., noise, discontinuity, raggedness) and the particular difficulties encountered when(More)
A survey of architectures for volume rendering. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 9(4):18{23, 1990. Lev89a] Marc Levoy. Design for a real-time high-quality volume rendering workstation. A three-dimensional shaded display method for voxel-based representations.planes 5: A heterogeneous multiprocessor graphics system using processor-enhanced(More)
A shading technique for voxel-based images, termedcongradient shading, is presented. As the surface information is not available in voxel representation, the surface normal must be recovered from the 3D discrete voxel map itself. The technique defines the normal as one of a finite set of neighborhood-estimated gradients and can thus employ precalculated(More)
Five hardware architectures for volume rendering, which requires efficiently handling a huge amount of volumetric data, are surveyed, categorized, and compared. They are Cube, Insight, PARCUM, Voxel Processor, and 3DP. General-purpose graphics systems that exploit their surface-based geometry engine to reduce the computational burden of the rendering(More)
We present a special architecture for arbitrary parallel projection for visualiza-tion of volumetric data. Using a ray-casting technique, parallel memory access, and pipelined processing of rays in a composition tree, we can achieve interactive rendering rates for a 512 3 dataset. 1.1 The Cube Architecture Cube is a special-purpose computer architecture for(More)