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Whole-genome sequencing of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi revealed that the diploid genome contains a predicted 22,570 proteins encoded by genes, of which 12,570 represent allelic pairs. Over 50% of the genome consists of repeated sequences, such as retrotransposons and genes for large families of surface molecules, which include trans-sialidases,(More)
African trypanosomes go through at least five developmental stages during their life cycle. The different cellular forms are classified using morphology, including the order of the nucleus, flagellum and kinetoplast along the anterior-posterior axis of the cell, the predominant cell surface molecules and the location within the host. Here, an asymmetrical(More)
Elucidating the mechanism of genetic exchange is fundamental for understanding how genes for such traits as virulence, disease phenotype, and drug resistance are transferred between pathogen strains. Genetic exchange occurs in the parasitic protists Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi, and Leishmania major, but the precise cellular mechanisms are unknown, because(More)
BACKGROUND In a mammalian host, the cell surface of African trypanosomes is protected by a monolayer of a single variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The VSG is central to antigenic variation; one VSG gene is expressed at any one time and there is a low frequency stochastic switch to expression of a different VSG gene. The genome of Trypanosoma brucei(More)
In yeast and metazoa, structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes play key roles in chromosome segregation, architecture and DNA repair. The main function of the cohesin complex is to hold replicated sister chromatids together until segregation at anaphase, which is dependent on proteolytic cleavage of the cohesin subunit SCC1. Analysis of(More)
The first description of African trypanosomes was made over a century ago. The importance of the tsetse in transmission and cyclic development of trypanosomes was discovered soon afterwards, and has been the focus of numerous studies since. However, investigation of trypanosomes in tsetse flies requires high resource investment and unusual patience; hence,(More)
BACKGROUND Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. are reported to be the most prevalent and highly pathogenic parasites in livestock, particularly in small ruminants. However, the routine conventional tool used in Malaysia could not differentiate the species accurately and therefore limiting the understanding of the co-infections between these two(More)
The cell surface of African trypanosomes is covered by a densely packed monolayer of a single protein, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The VSG protects the trypanosome cell surface from effector molecules of the host immune system and is the mediator of antigenic variation. The sequence divergence between VSGs that is necessary for antigenic(More)
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