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The X-ray repair cross complementing 1 (XRCC1) protein is required for viability and efficient repair of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) in rodents. XRCC1-deficient mouse or hamster cells are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents generating SSBs and display genetic instability after such DNA damage. The presence of certain polymorphisms in the human XRCC1(More)
X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) is required for single-strand break repair in human cells and several polymorphisms in this gene have been implicated in cancer risk and clinical prognostic factors. We examined the frequency of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) variant -77T-->C (rs 3213235) in 247 French breast cancer (BC) patients, 66 of whom(More)
Thiopurines are prescribed frequently as medication for cancer and for inflammatory disorders. One of them, azathioprine, has been the immunosuppressant of choice for organ transplant recipients for many years. Thiopurine use is associated with elevated sun sensitivity and skin cancer risk. Skin sensitization is selective for UVA. 6-TG integrates into DNA(More)
The frequency of squamous cell skin carcinoma in organ transplant patients is around 100-fold higher than normal. This dramatic example of therapy-related cancer reflects exposure to sunlight and to immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we show that the interaction between low doses of UVA, the major ultraviolet component of incident sunlight, and 6-TG, a UVA(More)
Patients taking the immunosuppressant and anticancer thiopurines 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine or 6-thioguanine (6-TG), develop skin cancer at a very high frequency. Their DNA contains 6-TG which absorbs ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, and their skin is UVA hypersensitive, consistent with the formation of DNA photodamage. Here we demonstrate that UVA(More)
X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) is required for DNA single-strand break and base excision repair (BER) in human cells. XRCC1-deficient human cells show hypersensitivity to cell killing, increased genetic instability and a significant delay in S-phase progression after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Using RNAi(More)
UVA accounts for about 95% of the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches Earth and most likely contributes to human skin cancer risk. In contrast to UVB, which comprises the remaining 5% and is absorbed by DNA nucleobases to cause direct photodamage, UVA damages DNA indirectly. It does this largely through its interactions with cellular chromophores(More)
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) protects against sunlight-induced skin cancer. Defective NER is associated with photosensitivity and a high skin cancer incidence. Some clinical treatments that cause photosensitivity can also increase skin cancer risk. Among these, the immunosuppressant azathioprine and the fluoroquinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin and(More)
Long-term treatment with the anticancer and immunosuppressant thiopurines, azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine, is associated with acute skin sensitivity to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation and a high risk of skin cancer. 6-thioguanine (6-TG) that accumulates in the DNA of thiopurine-treated patients interacts with UVA to generate reactive oxygen species. These(More)
Photochemotherapy, the combination of a photosensitiser and ultraviolet (UV) or visible light, is an effective treatment for skin conditions including cancer. The high mutagenicity and non-selectivity of photochemotherapy regimes warrants the development of alternative approaches. We demonstrate that the thiopyrimidine nucleosides 5-bromo-4-thiodeoxyuridine(More)