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BACKGROUND The AV delay optimization of biventricular pacemakers (cardiac resynchronization therapy) may maximize hemodynamic benefit but consumes specialist time to conduct echocardiographically. Noninvasive BP monitoring is a potentially automatable alternative, but it is unknown whether it gives the same information and similar precision (signal/noise(More)
We examine the potential to treat unstable ventilatory control (seen in periodic breathing, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, and central sleep apnea) with carefully controlled dynamic administration of supplementary CO(2), aiming to reduce ventilatory oscillations with minimum increment in mean CO(2). We used a standard mathematical model to explore the(More)
BACKGROUND The right ventricle (RV) may be selectively impaired following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We tested this hypothesis in two study parts: a prospective cohort undergoing CABG, and a retrospective cross-sectional cohort of heart-failure patients with and without a history of CABG. METHODS In the prospective study, 20 patients(More)
BACKGROUND Alternation of heart rate between 2 values using a pacemaker generates oscillations in end-tidal CO(2) (et-CO(2)). This study examined (a) whether modulating atrioventricular delay can also do this, and (b) whether more gradual variation of cardiac output can achieve comparable changes in et-CO(2) with less-sudden changes in blood pressure. (More)
BACKGROUND Clinicians are sometimes advised to make decisions using thresholds in measured variables, derived from prognostic studies. OBJECTIVES We studied why there are conflicting apparently-optimal prognostic thresholds, for example in exercise peak oxygen uptake (pVO2), ejection fraction (EF), and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) in heart failure(More)
BACKGROUND In atrial fibrillation (AF), VV optimization of biventricular pacemakers can be examined in isolation. We used this approach to evaluate internal validity of three VV optimization methods by three criteria. METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty patients (16 men, age 75 ± 7) in AF were optimized, at two paced heart rates, by LVOT VTI (flow), non-invasive(More)
For disease states characterized by oscillatory ventilation, an ideal dynamic therapy would apply a counteracting oscillation in ventilation. Modulating respiratory gas transport through the circulation might allow this. We explore the ability of repetitive alternations in heart rate, using a cardiac pacemaker, to elicit oscillations in respiratory(More)
BACKGROUND Effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) in mitral regurgitation (MR) is difficult to quantify. Clinically it is measured using the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method, which is intrinsically not automatable, because it requires the operator to manually identify the mitral valve orifice. We introduce a new fully automated algorithm,(More)
BACKGROUND Constant flow and concentration CO2 has previously been efficacious in attenuating ventilatory oscillations in periodic breathing (PB) where oscillations in CO2 drive ventilatory oscillations. However, it has the undesirable effect of increasing end-tidal CO2, and ventilation. We tested, in a model of PB, a dynamic CO2 therapy that aims to(More)
BACKGROUND Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) experience a reduction in right ventricular long axis velocities post surgery. OBJECTIVES We tested whether the phenomenon of right ventricular (RV) long axis velocity decline depends on the chest being opened fully by mid-line sternotomy, pericardial incision, or on the type of(More)
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