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Mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is a component of the "necrosome," the multiprotein complex that triggers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced cell death by necroptosis. To define the specific role and molecular mechanism of MLKL action, we generated MLKL-deficient mice and solved the crystal structure of MLKL. Although MLKL-deficient mice were(More)
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, EC 4.2.1.52) catalyses the branchpoint reaction of lysine biosynthesis in plants and microbes: the condensation of (S)-aspartate-beta-semialdehyde and pyruvate. The crystal structure of wild-type DHDPS has been published to 2.5A, revealing a tetrameric molecule comprised of four identical (beta/alpha)(8)-barrels, each(More)
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) mediates the key first reaction common to the biosynthesis of (S)-lysine and meso-diaminopimelate. The activity of DHDPS is allosterically regulated by the feedback inhibitor (S)-lysine. The crystal structure of DHDPS from Escherichia coli has previously been published, but to only a resolution of 2.5 A, and the(More)
In plants and bacteria, the branch point of (S)-lysine biosynthesis is the condensation of (S)-aspartate-beta-semialdehyde [(S)-ASA] and pyruvate, a reaction catalyzed by dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, EC 4.2.1.52). It has been proposed that Arg138, a residue situated at the entrance to the active site of DHDPS, is responsible for binding the carboxyl(More)
Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium thermocellum were recently found to synthesize diaminopimelate (DAP) by way of LL-DAP aminotransferase. Both species also contain an ortholog of meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase (Ddh), suggesting that they may have redundant pathways for DAP biosynthesis. The B. fragilis Ddh ortholog shows low homology with other(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase (KEGG entry Rv2753c, EC 4.2.1.52) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb-DHDPS) was determined and refined at 2.28 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains two tetramers, each of which we propose to be the functional enzyme unit. This is supported by(More)
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of (S)-lysine, an essential constituent of bacterial cell walls. Escherichia coli DHDPS is homotetrameric, and each monomer contains an N-terminal (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel, responsible for catalysis and regulation, and three C-terminal alpha-helices, the function of(More)
Human apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) is an exchangeable apolipoprotein that binds to lipoprotein particles in vivo. In this study, we employed a LC-MS/MS assay to demonstrate that residues 38-51 of apoC-I are significantly protected from proteolysis in the presence of 1,2-dimyristoyl-3-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DMPC). This suggests that the key lipid-binding(More)
Autophagy is a bulk degradation pathway that removes cytosolic materials to maintain cellular homeostasis. The autophagy-related gene 13 (Atg13) and microtubule associate protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) proteins are required for autophagosome formation. We demonstrate that each of the human LC3 isoforms (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) interacts with Atg13 via the LC3(More)
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, E.C. 4.2.1.52), a validated antibiotic target, catalyses the first committed step in the lysine biosynthetic pathway: the condensation reaction between (S)-aspartate beta-semialdehyde [(S)-ASA] and pyruvate via the formation of a Schiff base intermediate between pyruvate and the absolutely conserved active-site lysine.(More)