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OBJECTIVES We assessed the extent of exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury in the New York City (NYC) adult population. METHODS We measured blood metal concentrations in a representative sample of 1,811 NYC residents as part of the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004. RESULTS The geometric mean blood mercury concentration was 2.73(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE Very high levels of adherence are required for ART to be effective. There is limited information available from India on adherence to ART and its predictors. We carried out this study to examine adherence levels and to explore the factors associated with adherence among PLHA receiving ART in India. METHODS Using a cross-sectional(More)
The World Health Organizations HIV Drug Resistance (WHO HIVDR) Threshold survey method was used to assess transmitted HIVDR in newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected primigravida women attending the Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centers in Kakinada, in whom it is likely that the infection had recently occurred. Out of the 56 consecutively(More)
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurological disorder of childhood and early adolescence. It is caused by persistent defective measles virus. Brain biopsies or postmortem histopathological examination show evidence of astrogliosis, neuronal loss, degeneration of dendrites, demyelination, neurofibrillary tangles, and infiltration(More)
BACKGROUND Hypertension-related risk in urban areas may vary from national estimates; however, objective data on prevalence and treatment in local areas are scarce. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among New York City (NYC) adults. METHODS AND RESULTS The NYC Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES), modeled on(More)
Anthelmintic treatment of sick preschool-age children at health facilities is a potentially effective strategy for intestinal helminth control in this age-group. We conducted a study from July 1998 to February 1999 in western Kenya to determine whether the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines' clinical assessment can be used to(More)
A survey for transmitted HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) was conducted according to WHO guidelines among clients newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection at two voluntary counseling and testing centers (VCTC) in Mumbai. HIVDR testing was performed using the ViroSeq RT-PCR method (Abbott). Out of 50 successfully amplified and sequenced specimens, analysis of the(More)
BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is associated with substantial morbidity and increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. We describe HSV-2 seroprevalence in adult New Yorkers, and examine the relationship between select characteristics, infection, and diagnosis. METHODS HSV-2 seroprevalence and risk factors were(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE HIV estimates in India were based on HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) data and several assumptions. Expansion of sentinel surveillance to all districts and community based HIV prevalence measured by National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) in 2006 provided opportunity to replace many of the assumptions with evidence based information(More)
Molecular and conventional epidemiologic techniques were used to study the mechanisms and risk factors for tuberculosis transmission in a rural area with high prevalence in south India. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with IS6110 and direct repeat probes was performed with 378 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients. Forty-one(More)